原民一起規劃 智利設美洲最大海洋保護區 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

原民一起規劃 智利設美洲最大海洋保護區

2015年10月09日
摘譯自2015年10月5日ENS智利報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

智利總統巴切萊特(Michelle Bachelet)5日在第二屆「我們的海」研討會上宣布,將在智利海域設立三個海洋保護區,除了納入復活島周邊海域,其中的納斯卡-德斯溫特德海洋公園(Nazca-Desventuradas Marine Park)將會是美洲最大的海洋保護區。

復活島。圖片來源:10b travelling(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

復活島海域納保護 原民共同管理

納斯卡-德斯溫特德海洋保護區面積29萬7518平方公里,橫跨大洋島、聖安布羅西奧和聖菲力克斯。加上現有的保護區,智利共有幾百萬平方公里的海洋,獲得商業捕撈禁令的保護。

德斯溫特德也是南美僅存的未開發海洋之一,環境組織Oceana和國家地理學會於2013年2月首次深入進行科學探勘。科學家不僅在當地發現高低起伏的海帶森林、記錄到的魚群更是豐富,包括紅甘、黃條鰤、深海鯊魚、巨型龍蝦和脆弱的深海珊瑚,海床則沒有人類活動留下的痕跡。

復活島周圍的海域,也規劃在巴切萊特保護區之內;此處是鮪魚、鯊魚、槍魚和旗魚的產卵地,雖然禁止商業捕撈,但原住民仍能在此進行傳統漁業活動。當地原住民也參與了保護區的設計和規劃,面積高達63萬1368平方公里。

智利要再保護1萬3000平方公里海洋

第二屆我們的海研討會在智利瓦爾帕萊索舉辦。各國政府和組織在為期一日的會議上宣誓維護海洋生態系統。

美國總統歐巴馬透過影片為會議致詞,表示自己從2000年起開始設立國家海洋保護區,目前一個在馬里蘭州,另一個在大湖區。馬里蘭州的錦葵灣–波多馬克河是波多馬克河上14英哩的潮汐區域。此處有革命戰爭以降遺留的200艘船艦,許多被列入國家史蹟名錄。未經開發的錦葵灣是馬里蘭州最具生態價值的地區,也是許多稀有、瀕危魚類和野生動植物的棲地。

威斯康辛州875平方英哩的密西根湖,從華盛頓港到兩河間的水域將成為保護區。此處有39艘已知沉船,其中15艘被列為國家史蹟名錄。

此外,智利也正著手保護一處大面積沿海區域,在胡安·費爾南德斯群島設立海洋保護網絡。此處1萬3000平方公里的海域和海床將受到保護,包括Crusoe-Selkirk海底山脈、Loberías Selkirk海洋保護網等地。

「海洋童軍」計畫 歐巴馬宣誓打擊IUU

國務卿凱瑞也在會議上宣布,歐巴馬將推出Sea Scout海洋偵查計畫,結合全世界政府和利害關係者一同對抗非法、未報告和未受規範的漁業活動(IUU)。

Sea Scout以全球性的資源和合作關係辨識、阻截和起訴全球的IUU漁業組織和網路。

美國國家海洋大氣管理局(NOAA)將提供資料、工具和技術支援,協助打擊非法漁業,包括可見光紅外線成像輻射計,一種空間感測器,可以偵測夜間用燈光吸引魚群的船隻,辨識潛在非法活動。

這套偵測警示系統將在2016年用於印尼和菲律賓。

美國一年食用46億磅的海鮮,將致力於讓自家的漁業和進口商追蹤產品的來源地,並和國際社會合作,透過凱瑞所說的「跨太平洋合作關係中歷史性、可行的環境條款」,解決IUU漁業問題與黑心海鮮產品。

 

Chile Protects Three Areas of Pristine, Fragile Ocean
VALPARAISO, Chile, October 5, 2015 (ENS)

Chile’s President Michelle Bachelet today announced the designation of three new marine sanctuaries in Chilean waters, including the Nazca-Desventuradas Marine Park, the largest marine protected area in the Americas.

Together with its existing marine reserves, said President Bachelet, Chile now has a million square kilometers of ocean under protection from commercial fishing.

President Bachelet announced the new marine parks in Valparaiso at the second annual Our Ocean conference.

The Nazca-Desventuradas Marine Park in the Oceanic Islands, San Ambrosio and San Felix will encompass a surface area of 297,518 square kilometers (114,872 square miles) of protected ocean waters.

In February 2013, Oceana and National Geographic conducted a joint scientific expedition to the Desventuradas, the first to explore one of the last pristine marine environments in South America.

The scientists found undulating kelp forests; abundant fish populations, including enormous amberjacks, yellowtail jacks, deep sea sharks, giant lobsters, and fragile deep corals. The sea floor showed no signs of human impact.

Bachelet also announced the creation of a marine protected area surrounding the island of Rapa Nui or Easter Island.

These waters are a spawning ground for tuna, shark, marlin and swordfish. Commercial fishing will be banned from the area. Still, the resident indigenous peoples, who were involved in designing the 631,368-square-kilometer (243,630-square-mile) sanctuary, will be able to continue their traditional fishing practices.

In addition, Chile is protecting a large coastal marine area and creating a network of marine parks in the Juan Fernandez archipelago.

Nearly 13,000 square kilometers of ocean waters and seabed will be saved, including a series of seamounts called Crusoe-Selkirk, a network of marine parks called Loberías Selkirk, and also El Arenal, Tierra Blanca.

Chile hosted the Our Ocean conference in the picturesque Pacific port city of Valparaiso, a day-long meeting for governments and foundations to pledge support for the marine ecosystem.

U.S. President Barack Obama addressed the meeting via video to announce that he is designating the first new National Marine Sanctuaries since 2000, one in Maryland and the other in the Great Lakes.

Mallows Bay-Potomac River in Maryland is a 14-square mile area of the tidal Potomac River, where some 200 vessels from the Revolutionary War through the present are found, many listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Undeveloped, Mallows Bay is one of the most ecologically valuable areas in Maryland, providing important habitat for rare, threatened, and endangered species of fish and wildlife.

In Wisconsin, an 875-square mile area of Lake Michigan, with waters extending from Port Washington to Two Rivers will become a sanctuary. The area contains 39 known shipwrecks, 15 of which are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

In Valparaiso, Secretary of State John Kerry announced that the Obama Administration is launching Sea Scout, a new global initiative that will unite governments and stakeholders worldwide in the fight against illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing.

It will focus global assets and partnerships on identifying, interdicting, and prosecuting IUU fishing organizations and networks around the world.

Sea Scout is intended to improve the effectiveness of at-sea enforcement through identification of regional “hot spots” where IUU fishing is known to pose the greatest threat.

The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA, will provide new data, tools, and technical assistance to target illegal fishing, including the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite, VIIRS, a space-based sensor that can detect boats using lights to attract fish at night, identifying potentially illegal activities for further inspection.

In 2016, the detection system and alert services will be implemented in Indonesia and the Philippines, among other countries.

Americans eat 4.6 billion pounds of seafood a year, and the United States will make its own fishing industry and importers serving this huge market track products from their point of origin.

The U.S. will work with international partners to address IUU fishing and seafood fraud, including through what Kerry called “historic and enforceable environmental provisions in the Trans-Pacific Partnership.”

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.