巴西首例禁伐法案進國會 環團、孟山都齊心救森林 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

巴西首例禁伐法案進國會 環團、孟山都齊心救森林

2015年10月13日
摘譯自2015年10月7日ENS巴西,巴西利亞報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

環保團體綠色和平近日對巴西國會提交一項全面禁止森林砍伐的法案,由關注雨林的眾議員代表接收。這項法案將是巴西首條全面禁伐原始森林的法規,從2012年起就在巴西國內巡迴討論,已獲得140萬巴西民眾簽署支持。

巴西森林砍伐 (Kate Evans for CIFOR via Flickr)

巴西森林砍伐。攝影:Kate Evans。圖片來源:CIFOR。

雨林劣化嚴重 年排放2億噸溫室氣體

聖保羅省社會主義與自由黨議員Ivan Valente認為,立法禁止森林砍伐是合理的。目前巴西150萬平方英哩的雨林已經被砍伐約20%。大部分的砍伐土地用於畜牧和種植大豆,這兩項農產品是巴西最主要的出口品。

據估計,巴西亞馬遜雨林的砍伐和劣化每年排放2億噸溫室氣體。

綠色和平策略協調人Paulo Adario表示,這項行動的目的是建立一可行的法規,也是首條全面禁止砍伐巴西境內原始森林的法規。

除原住民與前逃亡黑奴社群外。此外該法案也提議廢止所有與此牴觸的法規。

里約熱內盧省眾議員Alessandro Molon指出,如果國會領袖皆同意,該法案可在11月30日至12月11日聯合國氣候綱要公約UNFCCC締約國大會(COP21)開始前投票表決。

運用減碳科技 智慧管理森林

農業與其他土地利用,包括森林砍伐、森林劣化、畜牧、土壤和養分管理等活動,所排放的溫室氣體佔總排放量的25%。如何供給2050年將達到90億的全球人口同時限制暖化,是人類的一大考驗。

同時在巴西最大城市聖保羅,世界企業永續發展委員會(WBCSD)以及其巴西分會7日也啟動了「氣候智慧」森林管理、農業與土地利用計畫,是WBCSD低碳科技合作計畫9月以來一連串國家級會議的其中一場。

企業領袖和巴西政策制定者在聖保羅召開會議,在巴黎COP21開始前推廣低碳科技。WBCSD會長暨執行長Peter Bakker表示:「沒有巴西經濟體中各產業的合作,就無法達成有效減少土地利用的溫室氣體排放。」

經濟與環境平衡 孟山都與保育組織合作

CEBDS會長Marina Grossi指出:「本世紀中,巴西將在全球糧食增產中扮演重要角色。讓糧食永續增產的關鍵在政府、公民社會和商業之間的合作。這些部門可以攜手實現具競爭力的農業經濟,在經濟與碳排之間達成平衡,創造收入與社會凝聚力。」

其中一個實例是生技鉅頭孟山都與巴西保護國際(Conservation International)組織合作,預防盜採、保護農業資源和生物多樣性。

在農民、種子採集者和當地政府的配合之下,保護國際和孟山都重建了1萬公頃的原始森林,也保護住水源。

孟山都董事長暨執行長Hugh Grant 表示:「隨著巴西農業發展興盛,必須在農田的健康、生物多樣性和森林保育之間取得平衡。全球糧食、農業和NGO社群可以共同領頭適應氣候變遷和緩解。」

亞馬遜森林空照圖,可清楚看到上方的原始綠地保持完整,對比下方的耕地開發狀況。圖片來源:NASA Goddard Photo and Video

Greenpeace, Monsanto: Two Visions of Brazil’s Forest Future
BRASILIA, Brazil, October 7, 2015 (ENS)

The environmental group Greenpeace today delivered a bill banning all deforestation in Brazil to members of the Brazilian National Congress. Since the draft legislation began circulating in the country in 2012, it has been signed by more than 1.4 million Brazilians.

The popular initiative was received in the green room of the Chamber of Deputies by elected representatives who care about saving Brazil’s Amazon rainforest.

An estimated 20 percent of more than 1.5 million square miles of rainforest has been cleared to date. Much of the land has been used to graze cattle and grow soybeans, Brazil’s two largest exports.

Deforestation and forest degradation across the Brazilian Amazon are estimated to emit 200 million tonnes of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere each year.

For Congressman Ivan Valente, a member of the Socialism and Freedom Party representing the state of São Paulo, the legislation forbidding further deforestation makes sense.

Greenpeace strategic coordinator Paulo Adario said that the movement wants to establish a viable law, with five articles: the first prohibits the deforestation of native forests throughout the country. There would be exceptions for indigenous and Quilombola communities and, finally, the bill repeals all laws to the contrary.

According to Deputy Alessandro Molon, who represents network Rio de Janeiro, if there is agreement among congressional leaders, the bill could come to a vote before the UN Climate Conference, COP21, which will be held November 30 to December 11 in Paris.

Meanwhile, in Brazil’s largest city, Sao Paulo, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development and its Brazilian counterpart, CEBDS, today launched what they are calling “climate smart” forest management, agriculture and land use programs for Brazil.

Business executives and Brazilian policymakers met in Sao Paulo to drive low carbon technology solutions forward in advance of COP21 in Paris this December.

The dialogue is part of a series of national dialogues taking place across the world from September to November within the context of the WBCSD’s Low Carbon Technology Partnerships initiative.

WBCSD President and Chief Executive Officer Peter Bakker said, “In the absence of a collaborative effort from all sectors in the Brazilian economy, there can be no meaningful reduction in land-use greenhouse gas emissions.”

Agriculture and other land uses are estimated to cause about 25 percent of the greenhouse gas emissions from human activities such as deforestation and forest degradation as well as emissions from livestock, soil and nutrient management.

The trick will be to feed the growing world population, expected to top nine billion by 2050, while restraining planetary warming.

CEBDS President Marina Grossi said, “Brazil will be responsible for a significant part of the increase in food production needed in the world by mid-century. For this to happen in a sustainable way, it is essential to join forces between government, civil society and businesses. Together, these actors can achieve the objectives of a competitive agriculture-based economy leading to a neutral model of development in carbon emissions, generating income and social inclusion.”

One example of how this might work is biotech giant Monsanto’s partnership with Conservation International in Brazil to promote a larger effort to prevent illegal deforestation, conserve agriculture resources, and safeguard biodiversity.

Working with farmers, seed gatherers and local government, Conservation International and Monsanto have restored about 10,000 hectares of native forest, critical to water sources.

Monsanto Chairman and CEO Hugh Grant said, “As agriculture thrives in Brazil, a balance must be struck between healthy farms, protection of biodiversity and forest preservation,” said Grant. “Together, the global food, agriculture and NGO communities can be leaders in adapting to climate change and mitigating its causes.”

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.