紐西蘭制訂法令 禁止捕殺大白鯊 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

紐西蘭制訂法令 禁止捕殺大白鯊

2006年12月06日
ENS紐西蘭,威靈頓報導;Nina L.游珮綺編譯;蔡麗伶、莫聞審校

大白鯊的牙齒、下顎及鰭可賣得數千美元的價錢 (圖片來源: WCS)紐西蘭漁業保育部1日宣布,大白鯊在紐西蘭海岸200海浬之內都將受到完全的保護,懸掛紐西蘭國旗的漁船在範圍內不得進行捕釣,違者將處以大額罰款,以及最高6個月監禁。

這個物種,也就是我們一般所說的大白鯊,將會在野生動物保護法( Wildlife Act)下受到保護。「這個雄偉的動物原本數目就非常少,在沒有保護情況下,甚至有絕種的危險。」保育部長卡特(Chris Carter)說道。

「大白鯊一直擔負著不應有的罪名,許多人也有錯誤的認知,認為牠對人類有很大威脅,」皇家森林及鳥類保育協會的諾利斯(Kirstie Knowles)表示。「其實大白鯊在紐西蘭水域的攻擊事件罕有聽聞,相較之下,你被電擊而死的機會還可能還比較多」。

大白鯊(學名為 Carcharodon carcharias),是鯊魚體型中最大的一種,成年的雌鯊會比成年公鯊還大一些,可以達7公尺長。最重紀錄曾重達2.5公噸。

漁業部長安德頓( Jim Anderton)表示,大白鯊並非商業捕撈的目標魚種,但有時不預期也會捉到。像這種非刻意捕捉而致大白鯊死亡的情形,只要有先向當局報備,就不會被起訴。

大白鯊 (圖片來源: CITES)在國際間,大白鯊的牙齒、下顎及鰭可賣得數千美元的價錢,因目前開始對鯊魚的皮、鰭、肉及其他可供作為食品業、藥業、化妝品業及其他工業使用的需求日增,導致現在全世界興起一股捕鯊潮。

「在新制定的規定中,漁人將不能從鯊魚身上獲利」,安德頓說,「如果可以的話,任何漁民不小心捉到牠,必須把牠原封不動放回海中。」

紐西蘭是野生動物遷移物種保育公約的簽署國,有義務制訂禁捕大白鯊的規定。大白鯊同樣也是國際貿易瀕危物種(CITIES)保育公約第二層級附錄中的保育物種,規定只能在特定狀況下進行貿易行為。

New Zealand Bans Killing of Great White Sharks
WELLINGTON, New Zealand

Great white sharks will be fully protected within the 200 nautical miles of water around New Zealand, and from fishing by New Zealand flagged boats anywhere, the ministers of conservation and fisheries announced today. Violaters will be hit with a large fine and up to six months in prison.

The species, also known as the white pointer shark, will be protected under the Wildlife Act. These majestic animals occur naturally in low numbers and, without protection, could be pushed to the brink of extinction," said Conservation Minister Chris Carter.

"Great white sharks have undeservedly had a bad rap, and are mistakenly believed by many people to pose a serious danger to humans," said Kirstie Knowles of the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society. "In fact shark attacks are very rare in New Zealand waters and you are more likely to be killed by being struck by lightning than by a great white shark."

The great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, is the largest species of shark, with adult females, larger than the males, reaching seven meters (22 feet) in length. The heaviest recorded great white weighed in at 2.5 metric tons.

Fisheries Minister Jim Anderton said the great white sharks are not known to be targeted by commercial fishing but are occasionally taken, unintentionally, as by-catch. Fishers accidentally catching and killing great whites will not be prosecuted provided they register the death with authorities.

Internationally, great whites are targeted for their teeth, jaws and fins and even small jaws can fetch thousands of dollars, said Knowles. Rising demand for shark skins, fins, meat and other parts used for food, medicine, cosmetics and other industries has led to a worldwide boom in shark fishing.

"Under these new regulations no fisher will be able to profit from taking a white pointer," Anderton said, "and any fisher inadvertently catching one will have to return it to the sea, intact, and alive, if possible."

New Zealand is a signatory to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals and has an obligation to prohibit the taking of great white sharks. Great white sharks are also protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, CITES, under Appendix II, which allows trade only with a permit.