巴西推動北亞馬遜流域保護計劃 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

巴西推動北亞馬遜流域保護計劃

2006年12月08日
ENS美國,華府報導;郭啟彬、蔡秦怡編譯;蔡麗伶審校

水獺 (照片來源:http://www.terrambiente.org)為了保育地球上最後一座尚未遭人為破壞的雨林,巴西帕拉州州長已對棲息著數千種野生動物的亞馬遜河流域一帶、與伊利諾州面積大小相同的區域採取保護措施。

由巴西帕拉州州長賈特寧(Simão Jatene)所建立的7個新的自然保護區,從蓋亞那(Guyana)及蘇利南(Suriname)邊界開始,涵蓋整個由北到南的整個亞馬遜河流域,世界最大的熱帶森林保留區也包含在內。

這些新的保護區裡有許多瀕臨絕種的生物,包括有巨大水獺、北方長鬚狐尾猴等,以及許多稀有的物種,例如美洲豹、巨食蟻獸以及黑蜘蛛猴等。

帕拉州政府與帕拉州貝林市的「亞馬遜人與環境研究機構」(簡稱IMAZON),以及華盛頓哥倫比亞特區的「國際保育」(Conservation International)共同合作,鑑定出這個區域需要優先保育的目標。

「地球上如果有雨林能完整無缺地度過下個世紀,那必定會是這個北亞馬遜河區,這主要歸功於當地政府的遠見,」國際保育組織主席密特邁爾(Russell Mittermeier)說道。

由摩耳基金會所贊助的國際保育組織全球保育基金,將資助這些保護區100萬美元,以作為初步建設的經費。這些種子投資的主要目的是希望能達到長期的經濟平衡,以確保帕拉州的保育承諾。

新的保護區範圍涵蓋57,915平方英里(1,500萬公頃),其中包括了16,409平方英里,全世界最大的熱帶森林保留區——Grão-Pará生態工作站在內。

這7個新的保護區讓巴西境內部分的亞馬遜雨林蓋亞那保護區形成完整的區域,超過全球潮濕熱帶雨林區的四分之一。接近九成的蓋亞那保護區森林都未遭人接近與破壞,並且保存了珍貴的美洲熱帶淡水資源,全球有接近五分之一的水流經該區域。

巴西世界自然基金會指出,這些區域受到非法開採金礦的威脅,非法開採使得水資源遭受汞污染,以及後續的泥沙淤塞、非法獵捕及無法永續的森林木製品使用危機。該基金會與其他保育團體共同提出要求成立這些保護區。

Brazil Protects Vast Expanse of Northern Amazon
WASHINGTON, DC, December 5, 2006 (ENS)

In an effort to conserve the last great stretch of untouched rainforest on Earth, the governor of Brazil’s Pará state has protected an Amazon expanse the size of Illinois inhabited by thousands of wildlife species.

Stretching from the border of Guyana and Suriname in the north to south of the Amazon River, the seven new protected areas created by Pará Governor Simão Jatene include the world’s largest tropical forest reserve.

Endangered species in the newly protected areas include the giant otter and northern bearded saki monkey, along with rare species such as the jaguar, giant anteater and black spider monkey.
The Pará state government, in collaboration with the Amazon Institute of People and the Environment, IMAZON, based in Belém, Pará, and Conservation International, CI, based in Washington, DC, identified the region’s highest priority conservation targets.

"If any tropical rainforest on Earth remains intact a century from now, it will be this portion of northern Amazonia, due in large part to the governor’s visionary achievement," said CI President Russell Mittermeier.

CI´s Global Conservation Fund, with support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, is committing US$1 million for initial costs of implementing the new protected areas. The goal of this seed investment is a long-term financial mechanism to secure the integrity of Pará state’s conservation commitment.

In total, the new protected areas cover 57,915 square miles (15 million hectares). Included is the 16,409 square mile (4.25 million hectare) Grão-Pará Ecological Station - the world’s largest tropical forest reserve.

The seven protected areas complete the Brazilian portion of of the Guayana Shield corridor of Amazon rainforest, which encompasses more than 25 percent of Earth’s humid tropical forests. Almost 90 percent of the Guayana Shield forest is still untouched, and the region contains the most significant freshwater reserves in the American tropics, with almost 20 percent of the world’s water running through it.

The area is threatened by illegal gold mining, which can contaminate water resources with mercury and cause siltation, illegal hunting, and unsustainable use of the forest for wood products, according to WWF-Brazil, which joined the other conservation groups in requesting these protected areas.