南亞海嘯二年後 數萬人還住臨時組合屋 | 環境資訊中心

南亞海嘯二年後 數萬人還住臨時組合屋

2006年12月13日
ENS 英國,倫敦報導;Nina L.、游珮綺編譯;蔡麗伶、莫聞審校

國際救援機構樂施會(Oxfam)7日在一份災難復原進展的新報告中表示,印尼亞齊省在印度洋海嘯橫掃家園、摧毀土地的二年後,至少還有2萬5千貧窮與無家可歸的人民無法重建家園。

位於蘇門答臘島南部的亞齊省,是2004年12月26日大海嘯裡受創最嚴重的區域之一。大約16萬9千人在此事件中死亡,60萬人無家可歸,14萬1千棟房子全毀。

7日時,樂施會發布一份最新報告:「大海嘯二週年:亞齊的土地權」,文中樂施會力促印尼政府以公平公正方式,為土地已流失的人們重建家園。有7萬人還住在臨時搭建的150個組合屋中,據樂施會描述那裡的狀況:「許多家庭擠在一起,衛生條件時時很差、很糟。」

印尼政府準備透過亞齊土地行政管理系統(RALAS),釋出60萬塊小土地的所有權。但是到2006年年中,只發出了2608份土地認證。

亞齊是發展中國家裡最大一個重建專案。政府當局表示將為無家可歸者興建12萬8千棟房屋,但截至11月為止,只有4萬8千棟房屋在亞齊當地興建。

「因對無土地者缺少明確政策,造成許多不確定及拖延,」樂施會國際總部主席赫伯(Jeremy Hobbs)表示。「即使海嘯過後大量捐贈湧至,這些人終其一生可能仍離不開貧民區」。

大約有1萬個家庭,因家園慘遭淹沒或沖毀,已從海嘯前有家有產淪至現今必須接受安置的境地。而有許多人的土地所有權狀,也在地震後的一波波洪水中毀去。

「在不知道誰擁有土地的狀況下中重建家園,將來可能會發生問題,」赫伯又說,「但這也會是一個極度困難且漫長的過程」。印尼政府已為他們買下700畝左右的土地,但實在緩不濟急,現只有700間房屋建好及提供入住。

海嘯過後,唯在政治軍事方面為亞齊帶來較正面的效應。12月11日,選民要對曾是叛亂區域的亞齊政府及地區主管進行第一次直接投票。海嘯事件促使叛軍及政府在2005年簽訂雙方和平協議,結束了長達30年的衝突,也為12月11日的選舉鋪下和平之路。

Two Years After Tsunami Thousands Live in Barracks
LONDON, UK, December 8, 2006 (ENS)

At least 25,000 poor and landless families in Aceh, Indonesia have yet to be re-housed nearly two years after the Indian Ocean tsunami swept their homes away and destroyed their land, the international aid agency Oxfam said Thursday in new report on the progress of recovery from the disaster.

Aceh, the northern province of the island of Sumatra, was the region worst affected by the tsunami of December 26, 2004. Some 169,000 people were killed, 600,000 were left homeless and 141,000 houses destroyed.

On Thursday, Oxfam issued a new report, "The Tsunami Two Years On: Land Rights in Aceh," and urged the Indonesian government to find a fair and just way of re-housing the landless. There are 70,000 people living in around 150 barracks across Aceh - temporary buildings where "many families live in cramped, often unhygienic conditions," Oxfam says.

The Indonesian government aims to title 600,000 plots of land through the Reconstruction of Aceh’s Land Administration System, RALAS. But by mid-2006 RALAS had only issued 2,608 land certificates.

Aceh is the largest reconstruction project in the developing world. The government has said it intends to build 128,000 houses for displaced people, but up to November, only 48,000 houses had been built in Aceh.

"The lack of a clear policy for landless people has led to a huge amount of uncertainty and delay," said Jeremy Hobbs, director of Oxfam International. "There’s a risk these people will end up in the slums of the future, despite the huge amounts generously given after the tsunami."

Around 10,000 s that owned property before the tsunami now need resettling because their land became submerged or was ruined. But many land ownership documents were destroyed by the enormous wave of water following an earthquake off the Sumatran coast.

"Rebuilding homes without knowing who owns the land could create problems in the future," said Hobbs. "But this can be a desperately difficult and slow process."

The Indonesian government has bought 700 hectares of land for them but progress is slow – only 700 houses have been built and occupied.

The tsunami had a more positive effect on the political and military situation in Aceh. On December 11, Aceh voters go to the polls in the first direct elections for governor and district chiefs in the once rebellious province. The tsunami prompted the rebels and the government to sign a peace agreement in 2005 that ended three decades of conflict and paved the way for the December 11 elections.