川普攪局 馬克宏努力綠化G7功虧一簣 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

川普攪局 馬克宏努力綠化G7功虧一簣

2019年08月29日
環境資訊中心外電;姜唯 翻譯;林大利 審校;稿源:ENS

七國集團(G7)在8月24日至26日比亞里茨峰會前原本訂定了積極的環境議程,包括規劃因應氣候變遷的國際戰略,並針對亞馬遜大火召開緊急會議。

但是最終的G7聲明卻沒有任何環境要點。

美國總統川普對亞馬遜野火會議態度冷淡,他表示已經和德國和印度領導人安排一對一會談。但這些國家的領導人參加了野火會議,川普沒有。G7峰會結束時川普舉行了記者會,也沒有對氣候危機有任何表示。


川普與馬克宏面會的歷史照片。Karl-Ludwig Poggemann攝(CC0)

美國將舉辦明年的G7會議。在白宮8月24日發布的背景資料說明中,川普說,美國是「全世界最佳的能源和環境紀錄保持者之一,有強勁的經濟增長和能源生產,同時還能降低排放量。」

事實上,降低溫室氣體排放是歐巴馬總統的成就。根據2017年BP世界能源統計評論,自2005年以來,美國每年的二氧化碳排放量確實下降了7.58億公噸,是全世界同一段時間內的最大降幅。 歐巴馬2009年1月就職並支持許多減碳政策,2017年美國溫室氣體排放量比2005年低13%。

2017年1月川普繼任後,立即取消了歐巴馬時代的許多法規,並繼續開放公有地和水域的化石燃料開採。

2018年,美國過去多年的碳排減少趨勢中斷,二氧化碳排放量增加了3.4%。紐約獨立經濟研究公司Rhodium Group指出,這是八年來的最大漲幅。

未來地球研究計畫(Future Earth)下的子計畫及世界氣候研究計畫(World Climate Research Programme)的合作計畫「全球碳計畫」(Global Carbon),也發現2018年美國排放量呈現類似漲幅。

資料顯示,美國不太可能履行2025年巴黎氣候協定的減排承諾。在川普的統治下,美國將在2020年退出巴黎協定,川普政府也已經撤銷了許多現有的土地、水資源和野生動植物保護措施。

本屆G7峰會聲明全文僅著墨貿易以及伊朗、波蘭、利比亞和香港的政治問題,總共268字,是近期峰會中最短的一份。

成千上萬民眾沿著比亞里茨海岸遊行抗議30公里(20英里),譴責造成貧困和破壞環境的領導人。他們說G7形塑了一個「為富人和跨國公司服務的體系。社會權利正遭到破壞,地球的生態浩劫正在發生,貧困和戰爭無處不在。」


6月間,比亞里茨海街上抗議G7的遊行隊伍。Txeng Meng攝。(CC BY-NC 2.0)

儘管每天都有許多提醒氣候危機已經發生,G7峰會沒有承諾減少排放。只有法國和英國繼德國之後承諾支持綠色氣候基金,其他G7領導人都沒能幫助承擔氣候變遷後果和成本的貧窮國家。

G7領導人僅在會議期間宣布一筆價值2000萬美元的亞馬遜保護基金,用於森林復育,協助復育亞馬遜熱帶雨林大火的損害。

儘管如此,比亞里茨G7首腦會議前,主辦國法國已為確保會議盡可能地綠色和永續而花了不少心血。

法國政府的聲明特別強調會議贊助商和合作夥伴的綠色解決方案,稱「不少贊助商和合作夥伴為獲得ISO 20121認證和大型活動平等標章目標提供協助。」

法國跨國電力公司Engie提供綠色能源和低環境影響解決方案,包括供記者和新聞中心使用的太陽能電動長型巴士,以及讓特派記者往來不同會場的200輛氫動力自行車。

法國廢棄物管理公司Suez協助垃圾減量,為峰會場地建立垃圾分類系統以及搜集和回收計畫,將垃圾轉換為比亞里茨地方的公共利益;預付公司Edenred提供600家當地餐廳的預付通行證,鼓勵嘗試當地巴斯克菜餚和產品,同時減少食物浪費。

Trump Disrupts France’s Effort to Green the G7 Summit
BIARRITZ, France, August 26, 2019 (ENS)

The seven industrialized countries that make up the Group of Seven (G7) – Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States – had an ambitious environmental agenda mapped out before their meeting August 24-26 in Biarritz.

The agenda included planning for an international strategy to tackle climate change and an emergency meeting to fight the raging wildfires currently destroying the Amazon rainforest.

But their Declaration, issued today, contained no environmental points at all.

U.S. President Donald Trump snubbed the Amazon wildfires meeting, offering the excuse that he had scheduled one-on-one meetings with the leaders of Germany and India at that time. But the leaders of those countries were at the wildfires meeting, although Trump was not.

Trump held a news conference at the close of the G7 summit in Biarritz, but he gave no details on the climate crisis. The United States will host next year’s G7 meeting. Trump did make a pitch for holding the 2020 G7 summit meeting at his resort, Mar-a-Lago, in Palm Beach, Florida.

In a “Fact Sheet” issued by the White House on August 24, Trump says the United States energy and environmental record is “one of the strongest in the world, generating strong economic growth and energy production, while lowering emissions.”

In fact, lowering greenhouse gas emissions was President Barack Obama’s achievement. According to the 2017 BP Statistical Review of World Energy, since 2005 annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions did decline by 758 million metric tons, by far the largest decline of any country in the world over that timespan. U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2017 were 13 percent below 2005 levels.

In January 2017, President Obama, who took office in January 2009 and backed many carbon-lowering regulations, was succeeded by President Trump, who immediately removed many of the Obama-era regulations and has continued to open public lands and waters to fossil fuel extraction.

In 2018, U.S. carbon dioxide emissions rose by 3.4 percent after years of decline. The spike was the biggest in eight years, according to Rhodium Group, an independent economic research firm based in New York City.

The Global Carbon Project, a research project of Future Earth and a research partner of the World Climate Research Programme, reported a similar increase in U.S. emissions for 2018.

The data shows the U.S. is unlikely to meet its pledge to reduce emissions by 2025 under the Paris climate agreement. Under Trump, the United States is set to leave the Paris pact in 2020, and his administration has reversed many existing protections for land, water and wildlife.

And that is the full text of the G7 Declaration, the shortest text in recent memory.

Thousands marched 30 kilometers (20 miles) down the coast from Biarritz to denounce leaders over poverty and environmental damage. They say the G7 imposes “a system that serves the rich and the multinational. Social rights are being destroyed and the planet’s ecological disaster, poverty and war are everywhere.”

Even with the daily reminders that the climate crisis is upon us, the G7 did not commit to cutting emissions. While France and the UK joined Germany in pledging support to the Green Climate Fund, other G7 leaders failed to help poorer countries who suffer the consequences and costs of climate change.

However, during the meeting, the G7 leaders announced a US$20 million Amazon protection fund, which includes reforestation, to help repair the damage from the many wildfires now burning across the Amazon rainforest.

Before the G7 Summit in Biarritz, the host country, France, went to a great deal of effort to ensure the meeting was as green and sustainable as possible.

In a statement outlining these efforts, the French Government highlighted the green solutions of its sponsors and partners, saying, “To attain our ISO 20121 certification and Equality at a Major Event label goals, several sponsors and partners have provided support:

Engie, the French multinational electric utility company, provided green energy and low environmental impact solutions, including:
– a solar field powering electric trambuses, provided by the Urban Community of the Pays Basque with the support of the Syndicat des Mobilités, for journalists and the press center;
– 200 hydrogen-powered bikes, with the support of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine Region, for accredited journalists at the Summit provided by Biarritz’ own Pragma 

Suez, a French waste management company, helped to reduce waste and to set up an extensive waste sorting system in the G7 Summit venues, and also a waste collection and recycling plan to convert waste for the benefit of the region;

Edenred, a French company specializing in prepaid corporate services, provided restaurant passes accepted by a network of 600 local restaurants as part of a “Welcome to the G7 in the Pays Basque” campaign, backed by the cities of Biarritz, Anglet and Bayonne and with the support of professional associations. This initiative helps to encourage people to try Basque cuisine and products and also to reduce food waste.

All of these initiatives have been showcased to raise the awareness of G7 delegations. France proposed G7 involvement through the signing of a “responsible delegation charter” including specific commitments. France asked G7 delegations to participate in one of the two offsetting projects – either reforestation of the Hergarai Valley in the Basque region or in Mali.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

林大利

於特有生物研究保育中心服務,小鳥和棲地是主要的研究對象。是龜毛的讀者,認為龜毛是探索世界的美德。