施用糞肥 有機食品易含抗生素 | 環境資訊中心

施用糞肥 有機食品易含抗生素

2007年07月17日
摘譯自2007年7月12日ENS美國,明尼蘇達,聖保羅報導;李育琴編譯;蔡麗伶審校

有機農產品含抗生素實驗::圖片來源:University of Minnes一份新的研究指出,包括玉米、生菜、和馬鈴薯等食物皆發現含有抗生素,這些抗生素是從施灑於土壤上含有此藥物的動物糞肥而來。研究結果顯示,有機食品最容易含有這些藥物,因為有機食品的主要養分來源多是糞肥。

這份報告由美國農業局(USDA)所贊助研究,由明尼蘇達大學的科學家評估家畜產品餵食抗生素對環境的影響。研究結果發表於《環境品質期刊》2007年7、8月號。

在溫室裡研究的植物包括3種穀類——玉米、生菜、和馬鈴薯。植物在含有磺胺二甲基嘧啶(Sulfamethazine)的液狀豬糞肥施灑的土壤中成長,磺胺二甲基嘧啶是一種獸醫常用的藥。磺胺二甲基嘧啶也曾用於人類的細菌感染疾病、動物用藥,以及用來促使牛羊豬雞等牲畜的成長。

植物的葉子中發現抗生素的濃縮物,藥物散布在馬鈴薯的根裡,也就是說,馬鈴薯、胡蘿蔔、白蘿蔔等根莖作物,因為直接與土壤接觸,因此特別容易受抗生素污染。研究主持人杜麗佛(Holly Swanson Dolliver)指出,植物所吸收的抗生素對有機農業的影響尤其值得關注。

她表示,「自從法律規定禁用合成肥後,糞肥就成為有機食品穀類最常用的養分來源。」根據美國農業局,製造商必須控管其動物的原料,避免造成穀物受禁藥成分的污染,抗生素也是控管的藥物之一。不過,含有抗生素的糞肥卻未正式禁用。

Livestock Antibiotics Can End Up in Human Foods
ST. PAUL, Minnesota, July 12, 2007 (ENS)

正在施糞肥 :: 圖片來源:USDAFoods such as corn, lettuce and potatoes have been found to accumulate antibiotics from soils spread with animal manure that contains these drugs. The study results indicate that organic foods are most likely to contain these drugs because manure is often the main source of crop nutrients for organic food production.

Funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, USDA, scientists at the University of Minnesota evaluated the impact of antibiotic feeding in livestock production on the environment. Study results are published in the July-August 2007 issue of the "Journal of Environmental Quality."

Plant uptake was evaluated in a greenhouse study involving three food crops - corn, lettuce, and potatoes. The plants were grown on soil modified with liquid hog manure containing Sulfamethazine, a commonly used veterinary drug. Sulfamethazine has been used to treat bacterial diseases in human and veterinary medicine and to promote growth in cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry.

Concentrations of antibiotics were found in the plant leaves, and the drugs also diffused into potato tubers, which suggests that root crops, such as potatoes, carrots, and radishes, that directly come in contact with soil may be particularly vulnerable to antibiotic contamination.

Holly Swanson Dolliver, the lead scientist in this study, notes that antibiotics consumed by plants may be of particular concern to the organic farming industry.

"Manure is often the main source of crop nutrients for organic food production, since regulations prohibit the use of synthetic fertilizers," she says.

According to the USDA, producers must manage animal materials in a manner that does not contribute to contamination of crops by residues of prohibited substances, which includes antibiotics.

However, manure containing antibiotics are not formally banned or prohibited.

全文及圖片詳見 ENS

作者

李育琴

站在南方的土地,用平躺的島嶼歷史視角,說環境與人的故事。炙風拂面,腳踏黏土之時,試著讓心保持冷靜。