保護儒艮棲地 沖繩美空軍基地暫緩建造 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

保護儒艮棲地 沖繩美空軍基地暫緩建造

2008年01月29日
摘譯自2008年1月24日 ENS 加州,舊金山報導;楊佳珊編譯;蔡麗伶審校

瀕絕的沖繩儒艮。圖片來源:ENS在未來90天內,被列為濱危物種的沖繩儒艮(dugong),其海藻棲息地將能暫免遭到美國國防部的影響。儒艮與加州海牛(manatee)同屬於海牛目水中大型哺乳類,值得慶幸的是,儘管美國國防部計畫在日本沖繩附近建立空軍基地,儒艮仍能繼續悠游於Henoko海灣中。

舊金山聯邦法官於23日裁定國防部由於未能考量到新空軍基地對儒艮的影響,以避免或減少任何傷害,因而違反了國家史跡保存法(National Historic Preservation Act)。

該保存法案中敦促各政府機構,若欲在境外從事任何活動,應考量該國文化及歷史資源等因素,評估可能造成的衝擊。

由於棲息地遭破壞、減少以及人為剝削等因素,儒艮被國際保育聯盟(IUCN)歸類為「脆弱」等級,而日本環保署近日也將儒艮列為「嚴重瀕絕」物種。

由於社會與經濟變遷的緣故,位於沖繩Ginowan市的美國Futenma海軍陸戰隊航空基地,其周圍都已經完全都市化,因此,海軍及日本官方都希望航空基地能遷離都市。此外,當地居民已經過公投表決反對空軍基地,但基本上日本與美國官方政府都不太重視公投結果。

儘管當地居民要求空軍基地遷離都市,但美國國防部仍要求在距岸邊2哩處建立Futenma海軍替代基地,也就是Henoko海灣內儒艮棲息地的正中央。

但由於美國國防部必須先彙整資料呈送法院,故此案件仍未裁決。法官於其中寫道:除非提出評估新空軍基地對儒艮的影響報告,且必須考量評估如何避免與減少對儒艮產生的負面影響前提之下,此訴訟案將暫緩處理。

U.S. Airbase in Okinawa Dugong Habitat on Hold
SAN FRANCISCO, California, January 24, 2008 (ENS)

The seagrass habitat of the endangered Okinawa dugong is safe from the U.S. Department of Defense, at least for the next 90 days. The sea mammal, cousin to the Florida manatee, will continue to swim in Henoko Bay off the Japanese island of Okinawa in the place where the United States plans to build an airbase.

A federal judge in San Francisco Wednesday ruled that the Department of Defense, DOD, is in violation of the National Historic Preservation Act for failing to consider the impacts of a new airbase on the dugong in order to avoid or mitigate any harm.

The act requires agencies of the U.S. government to consider the impacts on cultural and historic resources in other nations when undertaking activities outside the United States.

The dugong is classified as vulnerable by the IUCN-World Conservation Union due to habitat destruction and degradation, as well as human exploitation. The Japan Ministry of the Environment recently listed the dugong as critically endangered in Japan.

U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma is located in Ginowan City on Okinawa, and due to social and economic changes, is now completely surrounded by urban development. Both the Marines and the Japanese want the facility moved out of the city. Local residents voted against the base in a referendum, but Japanese and U.S. authorities have paid scant attention to the vote.

DOD plans call for construction of the Futenma Replacement Facility, FRF, about two miles offshore on reclaimed land. The location is in Henoko Bay and squarely in the midst of dugong habitat.

While the DOD must gather information and present it to the court, the case is not yet decided. The judge wrote, "this case is held in abeyance until the information necessary for evaluating the effects of the FRF on the dugong is generated, and until defendants take the information into account for the purpose of avoiding or mitigating adverse effects to the dugong."

全文及圖片詳見 :ENS