巫術、傳統醫療 害了蘇門答臘虎 | 環境資訊中心

巫術、傳統醫療 害了蘇門答臘虎

2008年02月18日
摘譯自2008年2月13日ENS美國華府報導;吳萃慧編譯;蔡麗伶審校

蘇門達臘公開販賣的老虎骨頭。圖片來源:TRAFFIC國際野生物貿易研究委員會(TRAFFIC)12日發表一份報告指出,儘管國際及印尼法律明文禁止,同時最近印尼政府也承諾要保護這種動物,然而在印尼市場上,仍可見到人們公然販售蘇門答臘虎(Sumatran tiger)的相關產品。

2006年調查人員們在全蘇門答臘調查28個城鎮326個零售大賣場,發現其中有10%的賣場販售老虎的犬齒、爪子、毛皮、虎鬚及骨頭。販售老虎身體部位的賣場包括金飾店(goldsmiths)、 禮品店、傳統中藥房、還有賣古董及寶石的商店。

這個調查根據販售的犬齒數目保守估計,要供應所看到的老虎部位必須宰殺23頭老虎。

TRAFFIIC東南亞辦公室計畫官員,同時也是這個報告的首席作者奈格(Julia Ng)表示:「這個數目從1999至2002年每年約殺害52隻老虎的數量下降了,但是老虎交易的活動在印尼蘇門答臘又死灰復燃了」。她指出:「令人難過的是,這個數目的下降看起來是因為野生老虎的數量正在逐漸減少中」。

老虎身上的許多部位(尤其是骨頭及陰莖)長期被用來作為傳統中藥材。骨頭被用來治療風濕病,陰莖被泡在酒裡,浸泡的酒用來作為壯陽劑。在印尼,老虎的身體部位則常被用來施耍魔法。這些身體部位被做成寶物,據信配戴者可以因此帶來好運及庇佑。

在印尼非法的虎皮。圖片來源:TRAFFICTRAFFIC的報告提到:「小塊的毛皮被用來保護擁有者免於邪魔侵擾,或是被巫師拿來施佈邪靈在其他人身上」。

目前在印尼,野生老虎僅存於蘇門答臘島,即將隨著巴里虎及爪哇虎在上世紀滅絕的腳步。

蘇門答臘虎在2007年世界保育聯盟(IUCN)瀕危物種紅名單上被列為極危(Critically Endangered)物種。在瀕危野生動植物種國際貿易公約(Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species,CITES)規範之下,這種老虎活體或是身體部位的交易行為都是被禁止的。

在印尼國內,這種老虎是1990年簽署的「有關自然生物資源與其生態系」法令第五法案所保護的物種,該法案禁止殺害、擁有、過戶/運輸及交易這些受保護物種的活體、屍體或是身體部位,違法者也將被處以鉅額罰款及長期徒刑。

動物園內因陷阱受傷的蘇門答臘虎。圖片來源:ENS因此TRAFFIC的結論是,問題癥結不在缺乏法律,而是在疏於執法。

在這份報告被發表之前,TRAFFIC1999-2002年調查中所查到販售老虎身體物件的零售大賣場名字及地址都已經提供給印尼地方及聯邦主管單位了。但是TRAFFIC表示:「不幸的是,印尼主管單位很少或沒有採取行動來抵制這些賣老虎物品的零售賣場或是賣場所有人」。

TRAFFIC北美辦公室計畫官員亨瑞(Leigh Henry)表示:「由於疏於執法,蘇門答臘虎正在我們的指縫間消失。」

For Magic and Medicine, Sumatran Tigers Are Traded to Extinction
WASHINGTON, DC, February 13, 2008 (ENS)

Body parts of critically endangered Sumatran tigers are being openly sold in Indonesia despite international and Indonesian laws forbidding it and a recent Indonesian government commitment to protect the animals, according to a report issued Tuesday by TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network.

Tiger body parts, including canine teeth, claws, skin pieces, whiskers and bones, were on sale in 10 percent of the 326 retail outlets surveyed during 2006 in 28 cities and towns across Sumatra, the investigators found.

Outlets for tiger parts included goldsmiths, souvenir and traditional Chinese medicine shops, and shops selling antique and precious stones.

The survey conservatively estimates that 23 tigers were killed to supply the products seen, based on the number of canine teeth on sale.

"This is down from an estimate of 52 killed per year in 1999–2002," said Julia Ng, program officer with TRAFFIC Southeast Asia and lead author on report, "The Tiger Trade Revisited in Sumatra, Indonesia."
"Sadly, she said, "the decline in availability appears to be due to the dwindling number of tigers left in the wild."

Tiger parts, especially the bones and penis have long been used in Chinese Traditional Medicines. The bones are used to treat rheumatism while the penis is soaked in wine and drunk as an aphrodisiac. In Sumatra, tiger parts are often used for magical purposes. They are made into jewelry believed to confer good luck and protection on the wearer.

"Small pieces of skins are used to protect the owner from black magic or used by a Shaman to cast black magic spells on others," the TRAFFIC report states.

In Indonesia today, wild tigers are found only on the island of Sumatra following the extinction of the Bali tiger and the Javan tiger during the last century.

The Sumatran tiger is listed as Critically Endangered on the 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Trade in live tigers or tiger parts is banned under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.

Within Indonesia, the tiger is a Protected species under the Act No.5 of 1990 Concerning Conservation of Living Resources and their Ecosystems, which prohibits killing, possession, transfer/transport and trade in live, dead or parts of Protected species and provides for a large fine and a long prison term for violators.

So the problem is not a lack of laws, it is a lack of law enforcement, TRAFFIC concludes.

All intelligence information obtained on the names and addresses of retail outlets selling tiger parts from TRAFFIC's 1999–2002 survey were given to the Indonesian authorities, at province and federal level, prior to the report being published. But TRAFFIC says, "Unfortunately, little or no action was taken by the Indonesian authorities against these retail outlets selling tiger parts or the retail outlets' owners."

"Because of poor enforcement the Sumatran tiger is slipping through our fingers," said Leigh Henry, program officer for TRAFFIC North America.

全文及圖片詳見 :ENS