我放棄了!巴西活躍的環保首長辭職 | 環境資訊中心

我放棄了!巴西活躍的環保首長辭職

2008年05月20日
摘譯自2008年5月15日ENS巴西,巴西利亞報導;范仕穎編譯;蔡麗伶、禾引審校

亞馬遜雨林保護者席娃(Marina Silva)辭去巴西環保首長一職。圖片來源:MMA她出身於一個採橡膠工人的家庭,在過去5年來擔任了巴西的環保首長,但是這位亞馬遜雨林保護者席爾瓦(Marina Silva)於5月14日辭職,她宣稱辭職的原因是:「對於執行政府環境政策的困難。」

根據巴西新聞媒體Agencia Brasil的報導,席爾瓦表示她將會回到巴西參議會的崗位上,針對環境議題加強政治方面的支援。

席爾瓦於5月15日首次針對她的辭職發表言論,她的離開是源自於停滯不前的狀況,同時表示政府需要有新共識的政治家來維持環境保護的長期工作,席爾瓦說她還沒有和總統盧拉(Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva)討論過她的辭職,雖然總統只負責簽署送到他辦公室的辭職公文。

席爾瓦對總統選擇里約熱內盧的環保署長明克(Carlos Minc)作為新的環境首長表示讚賞。席爾瓦說她的繼任者適合現在的過渡時期,同時也有能力延續巴西的環境管理政策。

席爾瓦表示她和其他首長對於政策與執行有著許多歧見,例如和國家整合部部長高摩斯(Ciro Gomes)的嚴重爭論,起因於她想要更動巴西針對三藩河的改道方案以解決東北部的嚴重旱情。

反對改道方案的人士表示只有4%的改道水流有益於當地的農村人口,相反的,此改道工程其實是有益於那些農企業、建築公司和生產乙醇的甘蔗田等大型企業。在她的辭職信中,席爾瓦強烈表示巴西不能對非法砍伐有所妥協。

席爾瓦說在爭論多年之後,政府終於頒發了公有林地管理法,「我們絕對不能走回頭路。」她說巴西應該走在永續木製產品的認證之前,唯有如此,「這些產品才會更符合環保要求。」

席爾瓦出生於巴西的亞馬遜雨林,她自小就是在協助父親進行採橡膠、打獵和捕魚等工作中度過,並養活她的大家庭。因為16歲時的一場疾病,她來到了城市裡,即使曾是文盲,她在很短的時間內取得了大學學位,接下來和橡膠工人領袖曼德斯(Chico Mendes)在Acre省建立了獨立的工會運動。

這個工會運動引發了設立雨林永續開採保留區的想法。無畏於曼德斯於1988年被刺殺的消息,席爾瓦持續地推動他們的理想,今日於Acre省的雨林永續開採保留區佔地兩百萬公頃,由當地的原住民社群負責管理。

席爾瓦因為健康因素,部分來自於重金屬中毒,也曾住院一段很長的時間,她沒有因為虛弱的身體狀況而停歇,於1994年她是第一位選入巴西參議院的橡膠工人。1996年她獲頒最具聲望的環保金人獎。2002年則受總統盧拉之邀擔任環保署長。

Brazil's Activist Environment Secretary Resigns
BRASILIA, Brazil, May 15, 2008 (ENS)

She rose from a rubber tapper's family to become Brazil's Secretary of the Environment for the past five years, but Amazon rainforest defender Marina Silva resigned on Tuesday, citing "the difficulties I have been facing to pursue the federal environmental agenda."

Silva said she would go back to her seat in the Brazilian Senate to strengthen political support for environmental causes, according to the state news agency Agencia Brasil.

Speaking about her resignation for the first time today, Silva said her exit was motivated by "stagnation" and said the government needs "a new agreement politician" to maintain a continuity of environmental protection. Silva said she has not spoken about her resignation to President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva , who is no relation, but simply had her letter of resignation delivered to his office.

Silva praised the president's choice of the new environment minister, Carlos Minc, Rio de Janeiro state's environment secretary.

Silva says her successor, “characterizes the process” and will be able to give continuity to the country's environmental management.

Silva said today that she had difficulties with other ministers, such as the Minister of National Integration Ciro Gomes with whom she had “very heated quarrels” as she sought changes in the proposal to divert part of Brazil's San Francisco River to the vast drought-prone Northeast part of the country.

Opponents of the diversion say only four percent of the diverted water will go to benefit the rural population in the receiving areas. Instead, they say the diversion will benefit big business such as agro-industries, construction companies and sugar cane for ethanol. In her letter of resignation, Silva stressed that Brazil could not back down on the battle against illegal logging.

Silva said that after years of quarreling over the issue, the government finally had obtained approval of the Law of Management of Public Forests and said, “we cannot come back behind.”

She said Brazil must move ahead on the certification of sustainable wood products "so that they have more environmental quality."

Born in the Brazilian Amazon, Silva spent her childhood making rubber, hunting and fishing to help her father support their large family. At 16 illness brought her to the city. Although she had been illiterate, she soon earned a university degree. She went on to found the independent trade union movement with rubber tapper leader Chico Mendes in the state of Acre.

This movement led to the idea of establishing sustainable extractive reserves in the rainforest.

Undaunted by Mendes' assassination in 1988, Silva continued to push for their creation. Today Acre's sustainable extractive reserves encompass two million hectares of forest managed by the traditional communities that inhabit them.

Health problems, including contamination with heavy metals, have caused Silva to be hospitalized for long periods of time. Fragile health has not stopped her. In 1994 she was the first rubber tapper ever elected to Brazil's federal senate.

In 1996, she was awarded a prestigious Goldman Environmental Prize.

In 2002 when President Lula took office, Silva was chosen as environment secretary.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS