斑海雀仍需要「瀕危物種」身份的保護 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

斑海雀仍需要「瀕危物種」身份的保護

2009年07月02日
摘譯自2009年6月24日ENS美國,華盛頓,西雅圖報導;張桂芳編譯;蔡麗伶審校

斑海雀在美國沿海原始森林的鳥巢中憩息。圖片由 HOPE 提供。美國魚類暨野生物管理局 (USFWS)發佈了一項長達5年的研究報告發現,按照瀕危物種法案,有必要繼續保護在華盛頓州、奧勒崗州和加州的斑海雀。

斑海雀, 學名Brachyramphus marmoratus,是一種在北美洲太平洋沿岸原始森林築巢的小海鳥。 1992年時,因其原始森林棲地遭砍伐之故,魚類暨野生物管理局按照瀕危物種法案,把在華盛頓州、奧勒崗州和加州等地的斑海雀列入瀕危物種。

魚類暨野生物管理局華盛頓州辦公室的督導伯格(Ken Berg)說:「就目前市面上最新的科學和商業信息進行徹底審查後,決定華盛頓州、奧勒崗州和加州等地的斑海雀維持其瀕危狀態。同時,其復育條件也還未達到從聯邦受威脅和瀕危物種名單上移除的標準。」

報告做出以下結論:「該物種數量下滑主要歸咎于,大規模移除斑海雀築巢棲地的沿海演替中期種群和原始森林。」

此決議發生的時間點,正值歐巴馬政府官員,重新考量當初小布希團隊提出在奧勒崗州西部,斑海雀棲地的原始森林,擴大伐木的決定。

地球正義的律師博伊爾斯(Kristen Boyles)說:「6月24日的報告明確指出,保護沿海斑海雀築巢及孵育下一代的原始森林是必要的。而這正好多了一個原因,讓歐巴馬政府取消奧勒崗州西部的修訂計劃。」

該報告發現在華盛頓州、奧勒崗州和加州等地的斑海雀數量,自2002年以來減少了26%。其中也坦誠,加州中部的特有品種自2003年以來減少了75%。

從舊金山灣區的入口處到加拿大邊境, 2001年至2008年的數據顯示,估計每年減少4.3%,全期共計減少了34%。而灣區的南部降幅更甚--2003至2008年間共減少了75%。估計目前總數約有1萬8千只。

伐木業提交了多起取消保護斑海雀的訴訟案件。迄今為止,都沒有成功。

為捍衛斑海雀,波特蘭奧杜邦協會、生物多樣性研究中心、西北保育組織、環保信息中心、平卡特工作小組、奧勒崗荒野協會、西雅圖奧杜邦協會、山巒協會、荒野協會等機構聯合起來,由地球正義律師代表出庭,對伐木業提出的訴訟進行干預。

由於新的報告證實,斑海雀數量的確日益減少,魚類暨野生物管理局爲此駁回了伐木業一系列提告當中最後幾個等候聽審的案件。

Marbled Murrelet Still Needs Threatened Species Status
SEATTLE, Washington, June 24, 2009 (ENS)

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has released a five-year report finding that continued protection of marbled murrelets in Washington, Oregon, and California is required under the Endangered Species Act.

The marbled murrelet, Brachyramphus marmoratus, is a small seabird that nests in old-growth forests along the Pacific Coast of North America. In 1992, the Fish and Wildlife Service listed the marbled murrelet population in Washington, Oregon, and California as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act due to logging of its old-growth habitat.

"After a thorough review of the best available scientific and commercial information, the status of marbled murrelets in Washington, Oregon and California has not changed and the recovery criteria for removing the species from the federal list of threatened and endangered species have not been met," said Ken Berg, supervisor of the Service's Washington State Office.

The report concludes that, "The species decline has been largely caused by extensive removal of late-successional and old-growth coastal forest which serve as nesting habitat for murrelets."

It comes as Obama administration officials reconsider a Bush administration decision to increase logging of murrelet habitat in old-growth forests in western Oregon.

"Today's report affirms the need to protect old-growth coastal forests used by this seabird to nest and raise their young - yet another in a growing list of reasons that the Obama administration should withdraw the Western Oregon Plan Revisions," said Kristen Boyles, an Earthjustice attorney.

The report finds a 26 percent decline in the Washington, Oregon, and California marbled murrelet population since 2002. It also admits that the genetically distinct central California population has declined by 75 percent since 2003.

For the area from the mouth of the San Francisco Bay to the Canadian border, 2001 to 2008 data show an estimated annual decline of 4.3 percent and a total drop of 34 percent. South of the San Francisco Bay, the decline is steeper - 75 percent from 2003 to 2008. The total population estimate is about 18,000 birds.

The timber industry has filed multiple lawsuits to remove protections from the murrelet. To date, those lawsuits have been unsuccessful.

Represented by Earthjustice, the Audubon Society of Portland, Center for Biological Diversity, Conservation Northwest, Environmental Protection Information Center, Gifford Pinchot Task Force, Oregon Wild, Seattle Audubon Society, Sierra Club, and The Wilderness Society intervened in the timber industry lawsuit to defend the murrelet.

With the new report confirming that the murrelets are in decline, the Fish and Wildlife Service has moved to dismiss the last of the pending timber industry cases.