韓國各界反對四大江水壩工程 政府仍一意孤行 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

韓國各界反對四大江水壩工程 政府仍一意孤行

2010年08月19日
摘譯自2010年8月16日ENS韓國,東海市報導;謝雯凱編譯;蔡麗伶審校

剛泉壩為南漢江上預計建造的3座大壩之一,位於驪州郡。此壩於2009年11月動工。(照片來源: KFEM)不顧各界大力反對,韓國政府強行推動總經費達200億美元的「四大江治理計畫」,已面臨來自地方首長、公民團體、學界、宗教界、教育人士與媒體的反對聲音。

該計畫目的在於確保乾淨用水的穩定供應、防洪,並發展成為地方上的休閒去處。這項韓國史上最昂貴的工程計畫涵蓋4條河流,分別是東南部的洛東江、西南部的榮山江、西部的錦江與西北部的漢江。

四大江計畫的「復原」工作,也就是反對者稱之為「建設」的工程,需建造20座新的水壩,加高87座現存的水壩,加高並加固數百公里長的河堤,以及在將近700公里長的河床進行疏濬,向下挖深6米。這些數據來自於非營利組織「韓國環境運動聯盟」(KFEM)。

然而上述數字均僅為略估,因為自這個計畫在2009年6月公佈以來,政府與反對人士便在精確的數據資料上,反覆玩著貓抓老鼠的遊戲。

8月15日的內閣改組顯示李明博總統決心完成這項具有爭議的計畫,因為環境部長李萬儀與國土海洋部長鄭鍾煥都獲得留任。

一直有人批評李萬儀執行四大江計畫的手法錯誤。平添爭議的一點乃是因為環境部對這個計畫的環境可行性研究只做了4個月,而環保人士則認為需要1年來評估環境影響。

為了安撫民意,政府展開公關宣傳行動,製作光鮮的手冊,使用大豆油墨印製在再生紙上,上頭的彩色圖像描繪著帆船航行在蓄水壩中,周圍則是綠帶與單車道。

沿著這些河流將建置1700公里長的單車道,區域的休閒活動將會透過單車道網路而增加。

根據政府資料,此計畫將建造大量的廢水處理設施並移除污染河水的農場,將會改善當地河川的水質。

儘管韓國每年夏季都有大雨,但李明博政府表示,在降雨總量中經由地表逕流入海的部份,韓國僅能利用其中的25%,其他非屬逕流的雨水則會蒸發。若是韓國可多留下5%至10%的雨水供作使用,將可「改變氣候對於朝鮮半島的影響,並防止洪水危害韓國」。

政府發言人表示,清淨這些數十年來遭受工業化與汙染之苦的河川,會像是「替患有動脈硬化的人清理動脈」。

然而許多人想知道的是,要如何用更多的工業化來修復工業化的錯誤。

禪師自焚  抗爭激烈

身為佛僧與禪師的文殊法師以激烈的方式表達對四大江計畫的反對,他在5月31日在一條河的河岸自焚。其於遺書中寫道:「李明博政府應停止並取消四大江計畫」。

其他人,像是KFEM首爾分會會長Yum Hyung-cheol與其他成員,自7月份以來,便占據漢江上Ipo壩頂的吊車,要求立即停止施工。他們有一台發電機,打算無限期的紮營抗爭。

反對者認為,這項龐大的計畫不過是另一塊豬肉,用來挹注衰退中的南韓營造業,營造業據估計佔了該國經濟的20%。

但政府宣稱此計畫將為這個人口稠密的東北亞國家提供5千萬立方米的飲用水,與9千萬立方米的防洪空間。韓國人口密度每平方公里約500人,世界平均則為50人。

正當許多國家正在拆除水壩以復育該國河川時,韓國卻正在建造更多的水壩。根據駐韓國的美籍新聞記者詹姆斯‧卡特(James Card)說法,韓國目前已有「超過18000座水壩」。他寫到,「中國擁有87000座水壩」,但是中國也有「100倍的土地面積與30倍的人口」。卡特表示,四大江計畫「與國際上所接受的河川復育原則大相徑庭」。

李明博總統過去以747口號贏得大選,亦即在7年內讓韓國達到7%的經濟成長,人均年收入達4萬美元。但是他當初想要建造連結釜山與首爾的「大運河」夢想卻遭大家一致反對而停止。有些人相信,四大江計畫即是大運河計畫的化身。

據韓國首要報刊《朝鮮日報》16日報導,到目前為止,四大江計畫已有25%完成,完工日期將會是在2011年的某個時間點。報導中指出,目前已自河床上挖出5億立方米的土石。

多個施工場址的觀察者回報,原本的溼地已經被「巨大的砂石堆」取代,再加上重型推土機具與不斷來回的傾卸式卡車。

South Korea's Four Rivers Dam Construction Rolls Over Opposition
DONGHAE CITY, South Korea, August 16, 2010 (ENS)

South Korea's government-mandated US$20 billion Four Major Rivers Restoration project rolls on despite massive opposition from provincial leaders, civic groups, the intellectual community, clergy, educators, and the media.

Planned to secure a steady supply of clean water, provide flood control, and develop regional recreation opportunities, the costliest engineering project in Korea's history involves four rivers - the Nakdong River in the southeast; the Yeongsan River in the southwest, the Geum River in the west, and the Han River in the northwest.

The "restoration," which those opposed refer to as the "construction," entails the building of 20 new dams, the raising of 87 existing dams, the raising and buttressing of hundreds of kilometers of river bank, and the dredging of almost 700 kilometers of river to a depth of six meters, according to the nonprofit Korean Federation for Environmental Movement.

These numbers are all estimates, as the government and the opposition continue to play a game of cat and mouse with facts and figures since the project was announced in June 2009.

Sunday's Cabinet reshuffle showed President Lee Myung-bak's determination to complete the controversial project as Environment Minister Lee Maa-nee and Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs Minister Chung Jong-hwan kept their posts.

Minister Lee has been criticized for mishandling of the river project. One point of contention arose because the ministry's environmental feasibility study for the project lasted just four months, while environmentalists say a year is needed to assess the environmental impacts.

To smooth ruffled feathers, the government has embarked on a public relations campaign featuring glossy brochures, printed on post-consumer paper using soy-based inks, with color images of sailboats floating on reservoirs bordered by green zones and bike paths.

Regional recreation will be enhanced through a network of 1,700 kilometers of bicycle trails constructed along these rivers.

Plans to build numerous wastewater treatment facilities and remove area farms that pollute rivers will improve local river water quality, according to government sources.

Despite the annual heavy rain in summer, the Lee government says, Korea can use only 25 percent of the total rainfall that flows to the sea, as the rest of it is evaporated. If Korea can put an additional five or ten percent of rainwater to use, this will "change the climate on the Korean Peninsula and prevent floods in the country."

Cleaning the rivers, which have been suffering from pollution and industrialization for decades, will be akin "cleaning the arteries of a person suffering from arteriosclerosis," say government spokesmen.

What many people want to know, however, is how further industrialization can heal the wrongs of industrialization.

Intense opposition to this project was expressed by Buddhist monk and Zen master Reverend Munsu, who burned himself to death on a stream bank May 31. In his will, he wrote, "Lee Myung-bak administration should stop and scrap the Four Rivers Project."

Others, such as Yum Hyung-cheol and members of the Korean Federation for Environmental Movement have occupied a crane at the Ipo weir on the Han River since July, demanding that construction cease immediately. They have a generator and are camped out indefinitely.

Detractors say that this huge project is little more than another piece of pork for the shrinking South Korean construction industry, which makes up an estimated 20 percent of the nation's economy.

But the government claims the project will provide 50 million cubic meters of drinking water and 90 million cubic meters of additional flood control area for this densely populated northeast Asian nation, which holds about 500 people per square kilometer, compared to a world average of 50 per square kilometer.

While many countries are removing dams in order to restore rivers to their original state, South Korea is building more dams. According to James Card, an American journalist based in South Korea, the country currently has "more than 18,000 dams." And while "China has 87,000 dams," he writes, it also has "100 times the land, and 30 times the people." Card says the Four Rivers project is "diametrically opposed to internationally accepted principles of river restoration."

President Lee rose to power on the 747 slogan, "7 percent growth and US$40,000/year income within 7 years." But his dream for a "Grand Canal" linking Busan to Seoul was shouted down unanimously. Some believe that the Four Rivers project is a reincarnation of the grand canal project.

To date, about 25 percent of the project has been completed, with a completion date sometime at the end of 2011, according to today's "Chosun Ilbo," Korea's flagship news daily. The paper states that so far 500 million cubic meters of earth have been dredged from river bottoms.

Visitors to several of the sites report former wetlands replaced by "huge mountains of sand," punctuated with heavy earth-moving machinery and a steady traffic of dump-trucks.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導

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