美經濟復甦法案:推動電動車電池、再生能源、人類基因圖譜定序 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

美經濟復甦法案:推動電動車電池、再生能源、人類基因圖譜定序

2010年08月27日
摘譯自2010年8月24日ENS美國,華府報導;段譽豪編譯;蔡麗伶審校

2010年8月16日,歐巴馬總統在威斯康辛的梅諾默尼瀑布參觀溴化鋅電池製造工廠。圖片來自:白宮。美國副總統拜登(Joe Biden)今天公佈了歐巴馬政府的刺激經濟方案,內容包含了降低電動車電池的成本、將太陽能電池的成本降低一半、加倍再生能源的製造以及製作更廉價的個人基因圖譜。

拜登24日於國會預算辦公室在《2009振興經濟法案(American Recovery and Reinvestment Act)對就業和經濟影響報告》發表時致詞說,政府設定的目標以及該法案對於創新產業投資的1000億美金,帶來了新的科技與產業,改變了美國的經濟。

報告表示,復甦法案(Recovery Act)的投資將在2009至2015年間,透過最新的技術與量產方式,提高生產水準,可降電動車用電池70%的成本。

這意味著典型全電動車的電池成本將從33000美金下降到10000美金,而插電式混合動力車電池的成本將由13000美金下降至4000美金。

這表示人們將更輕易負擔電動車,與相似的非電動車比起,車輛生命週期內的花費也較少。

2010年7月30日,歐巴馬總統與組裝線經理奎格利(Teri Quigley)在通用汽車廠試駕雪佛蘭Volt電動車。圖片來自:白宮。現在電動車已經越來越普及且便宜了。2009年的時候,唯一買得到的電動車售價超過10萬美金。而在不久的將來可以在車市中看到,日產Leaf的售價將從25000美金起跳,雪佛蘭Volt則從33000美金起售。

到2015年,新的電池將比現在輕33%,因此只需要較少的能源來驅動汽車。屆時典型的電池壽命預計將達14年,比目前的4年電池壽命還要長3倍多。

能源部長朱棣文(Steven Chu)在新報告發表時說,由於復甦法案的投資,美國這部創新機器改變了我們對能源的生產與使用方法。

他同時說,這些突破也創造了成千上萬的工作機會,使美國繼續成為全球經濟的領導者,並且對將來的世代提供更美好的未來。

報告也提到,我們正逐步削減太陽能發電的成本,在2015年以前降為現在的一半,這將使得太陽能在整體電網的發電成本下降。

屋頂上的太陽能板發電成本將從2009年的每度電0.21美元,下降到2015年的每度電0.1美元,與一般家庭用電費率相當。

2010年1月,葛雷(Allison Gray)在國家再生能源實驗室(NREL)測量太陽能及熱槽的光學效率。圖片來自:NREL。而工業規模的太陽能電力成本將從現在的每度0.13美金,於2015年時下降到每度0.06美金,這相當於大批購電的費率。

該報告預測,到2030年時,屋頂太陽能發電的成本可以下降到每度0.06美元。到時候太陽能發電將比家庭電價便宜,一個家庭每年平均可節省超過400美元。

拜登在24日說,「歐巴馬總統,朱部長以及我定下了一個目標,在2012年以前利用風力、太陽能以及地熱發電使美國的再生能源發電量倍增。我們3年內的裝置量要達到過去30年間所做的,而我們現在進度已經超前。」

「在佛羅里達的彭薩科拉(Pensacola),我們資助北美最大的光電發電廠,超過90,000片的太陽能電池板-提供的電力足夠3000個家庭使用,」拜登說。

「而能源部在莫哈韋沙漠(Mojave Desert)支持的一個發電計畫,由349000面鏡子組成的太陽熱能發電設施,將是全世界規模最大的,」他說。

最後,報告提到歐巴馬政府訂出了5年內將個人基因圖譜的費用降至1000美金以下的目標。到時候這將使得研究人員為50個人做基因排序的費用只要今天一個人的價錢。

當花費更低時,DNA資料將可成為日常醫療的一部分。就像抽血檢驗一樣,低價的完整基因檢測能夠幫助醫療供應者在未來選擇更有效、更個人化的治療方式。

復甦法案提供了7個不同的人類基因圖譜排序計畫,每個計畫都使用不同的技術。

國家衛生研究院主任柯林斯博士(Francis Collins)24日表示,「復甦法案並非只提供生物醫學界上千個工作機會,它加速了醫學的發現,對全美國人的健康很有幫助。」

Recovery Act Funds Electric Car Batteries, Renewable Energy, Genome Scans
WASHINGTON, DC, August 24, 2010 (ENS)

The United States is now on track to slash the cost of electric vehicle batteries, halve the cost of solar power, double renewable energy manufacturing, and produce inexpensive personal genome maps, according to a new report on the results of the Obama administration's economic stimulus released today by Vice President Joe Biden.

Introducing the report from the Congressional Budget Office on the employment and economic impact of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in Washington, Biden said today the $100 billion investment in innovation funded by the Act and the goals set by the administration have changed the American economy by inspiring new technologies and launching new industries.

Recovery Act investments have now put the United States on track to cut the cost of batteries for autos by 70 percent between 2009 and 2015, by taking advantage of the latest technologies and ramping up manufacturing to much higher levels, the report shows.
This means that the cost of batteries for the typical all-electric vehicle will fall from $33,000 to $10,000, and the cost of typical plug-in hybrid batteries will drop from $13,000 to $4,000.

Those lower prices will mean that electric cars are affordable and less expensive over the life of the car than similar non-electric vehicles.

Already, electric vehicles are becoming more affordable and accessible. In 2009, the only available electric-drive vehicle cost more than $100,000. Soon, the Nissan Leaf, starting at $25,000, and the Chevy Volt, starting at $33,000, will be available.

By 2015, the new batteries will be lighter by 33 percent, so less energy will be needed to power the car. By 2015, a typical battery is expected to last 14 years, more than three times as long as the current four-year battery lifetime.

"Thanks to investments made possible by the Recovery Act, we are unleashing the American innovation machine to change the way we use and produce energy in this country," said Energy Secretary Steven Chu at the launch of the new report.

"Just as importantly," he said, "these breakthroughs are helping create tens of thousands of new jobs, allowing the U.S. to continue as a leader in the global economy and helping to provide a better future for generations to come."

We are on track to cut the cost of solar power in half by 2015, which will bring the cost of generating solar power down to the cost of electricity from the grid, the report shows.

The cost of power from rooftop solar panels will drop from $0.21 per kWh in 2009 to $0.10 per kWh in 2015, which is equivalent to typical household electricity rates.

The cost of power from utility-scale solar projects would drop from $0.13 per kWh today to $0.06 in 2015, which is equivalent to the cost of wholesale utility power.

The report predicts that the cost of rooftop solar power could drop to as low as $0.06 per kWh by 2030. At that cost, solar power will be cheaper than household electricity rates, and an average household could save more than $400 per year in electricity bills.

Biden said today, "President Obama, Secretary Chu, and I set a goal of doubling U.S. renewable energy generation capacity from wind, solar, and geothermal by 2012. We wanted to install as much renewable capacity in three years as the U.S. had in the previous thirty. But we're ahead of pace to meet it."

"In Pensacola, Florida, we've funded the largest photovoltaic power plant in North America, with over 90,000 solar panels - enough to provide energy for 3,000 homes," Biden said.

"And the Department of Energy is in the process of supporting what will be the world's largest solar thermal facility in the Mojave Desert. It will have 349,000 mirrors," he said.

Finally, the Obama administration's goal of bringing the cost of a personal human genome map to under $1,000 in five years is within reach, the report shows. This cost level will allow researchers to sequence 50 human genomes for the same cost as sequencing just one today.

With a more affordable price tag, DNA information could become a routine part of medical care. Just like a blood test, an inexpensive whole-genome DNA scan could help health care providers in the future choose effective, personalized treatments.

Seven projects funded by the Recovery Act are attempting to drive down the cost of human genome sequencing, each with a different technological strategy.

Director of the National Institutes of Health Francis Collins, M.D., said today, "The Recovery Act funding is not only producing thousands of jobs in the biomedical research community, it is also helping speed important medical discoveries that will benefit the health of Americans nationwide."

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導