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抵制黑鮪魚食品店 全球2萬多人響應

2010年12月16日
摘譯自2010年12月9日ENS美國,舊金山報導;黃毓婷編譯;蔡麗伶審校

國際性保育機構「生物多樣性中心」(Center for Biological Diversity)日前呼籲抵制販售黑鮪魚的壽司餐廳,該行動已獲得迴響。聲援團體表示,他們在10天之內收到2萬多份同意不吃黑鮪魚也不光顧販售餐廳的同意書。

黑鮪魚在過去數10年間遭受濫捕的結果已經面臨絕種的危機。今年年初,1條黑鮪魚在市場上的價碼抬漲到17萬7千美金,使匿報和非法捕獵更有利可圖。國際調查記者聯合組織(ICIJ)在今年10月出版的報告中便揭發黑鮪魚交易存在著龐大的黑市。

現今,西大西洋中的黑鮪魚數量已經較1970年代少了超過80%;而東大西洋的黑鮪魚數量在1957年到2007年間減少了74%。去年春天,西大西洋黑鮪魚(以墨西哥灣為產卵地點)在產卵季節時遭逢墨西哥灣的漏油事件,生物多樣性中心估計,這次漏油事件殺死了超過20%的西大西洋黑鮪魚幼魚,它所帶來的負面影響未來依然會持續存在。

今年11月,國際大西洋鮪魚保育委員會 (International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, ICCAT) 試圖規制黑鮪魚捕撈量的行動宣告失敗,明年的黑鮪魚限制漁獲量遠遠超過了ICCAT的科學家們建議有助於黑鮪魚復育的捕撈量。因此就在ICCAT的會談結束後,生物多樣性中心隨即展開了抵制行動,希望饕客們能藉著減少需求來拯救黑鮪魚。

目前,美國國家海洋漁業局接受了生物多樣性中心的訴願,正在評估是否要將大西洋黑鮪魚列為瀕臨絕種或受威脅的名單之內。

今年11月開始,在澳洲水域巡游的南黑鮪魚也有人管了。國際人道協會(Human Society International )終於在多方阻撓中宣佈黑鮪魚已經成功地劃入受威脅物種的名單之內,在澳洲國家環境法底下受到官方正式的保護。

僅管如此,南黑鮪魚仍然未被列入國際人道協會所建議、絕種風險最高的「極度瀕危(Critically Endangered)」等級。因為這意味著再也無法進行捕撈或者從澳洲出口這種等級的魚類。

澳洲環境部部長東尼柏克(Tony Burke)表示:「黑鮪魚是到處巡游的魚類,只有全球性的管制才能幫助南黑鮪魚的復育,既然全球的限制漁獲量不變,澳洲沒有必要在境內實施禁漁。」

國際人道協會的威爾畢勞(Alexia Wellbelove)反駁,科學家們已經評估出零漁獲才能讓南黑鮪魚有微弱的機會在未來20年內將數量回復到生物量的20%(目前僅餘4.6%)。部長必須堅持澳洲水域禁漁的立場,並在南黑鮪魚保育委員會 (Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna) 推動國際合作。

Bluefin Tuna Boycott Popular, Australia Protects Southern Bluefin
SAN FRANCISCO, California, December 9, 2010 (ENS) -

Just 10 days after the Center for Biological Diversity called for a boycott of bluefin tuna in sushi restaurants, the advocacy group said today more than 20,000 people from all 50 states and 91 countries have signed a pledge not to eat bluefin or patronize restaurants where it is sold.

Bluefin tuna are being pushed to extinction by decades of overfishing. Market prices soaring to $177,000 for a single bluefin earlier this year motivate illegal and unreported fishing, and a large black market was documented in a report published in October by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists.

The western Atlantic population of bluefin has dropped by more than 80 percent since 1970, while the eastern Atlantic population dropped by 74 percent between 1957 and 2007.

Last spring, western Atlantic bluefin tuna, which breed in the Gulf of Mexico, were harmed by the BP oil spill at the height of their spawning season. The Center cites scientific estimates that the spill killed more than 20 percent of juvenile western Atlantic bluefin tuna and negative effects of the oil spill are expected to persist into the future.

In November, the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, the intergovernmental agency charged with managing bluefin tuna failed to cut next year's quota's to the levels recommended by its own scientists for the species' recovery.

Immediately after the ICCAT meeting ended the Center for Biological Diversity launched its boycott, hoping that restaurant goers would save the unique fish by reducing demand for it.

The National Marine Fisheries Service is now deciding whether or not to list the Atlantic bluefin tuna as endangered or threatened in response to the Center's petition.

The southern bluefin tuna, which swims in Australian waters, was promised protection by the Australian government in November.

After many thwarted attempts, Humane Society International announced success in having southern bluefin tuna formally protected under Australia's national environment laws as a threatened species.

Even so, southern bluefin tuna has not been listed in the category the Humane Society says it qualifies for, Critically Endangered, because that would put a stop to the commercial exploitation and export of the fish from Australia.

"Because of its highly migratory nature, a global management strategy is the only way to help the recovery of southern bluefin tuna," said Burke. "A ban on southern bluefin tuna fishing in Australia would not necessarily result in a reduction of global catch, as the global catch limit may not change."

"Scientists have predicted that only a zero catch gives the southern bluefin tuna population a decent chance of recovering to 20 percent of its unfished biomass in 20 years," said Wellbelove. "The minister now needs to insist southern bluefin tuna gets this respite from fishing in Australian waters and that Australia works to achieve this internationally at the Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna."

全文及圖片詳見:ENS