美國禽畜肉品 驗出具抗藥性危險細菌 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

美國禽畜肉品 驗出具抗藥性危險細菌

2011年04月27日
摘譯自2011年4月17日ENS美國,亞利桑那州,弗拉格斯塔夫報導;陳雅琦編譯;蔡麗伶審校

美國市售生肉品,可能遭到抗藥性菌感染。圖片節錄自:Winfried Mosler相本。美國零售超市的禽畜肉品日前驗出高比率的抗藥性金黃色葡萄球菌。金黃色葡萄球菌與許多人類疾病相關。這是美國食品業第一次對該菌種進行國家檢測。

由美國感染症醫學會(Infectious Diseases Society of America, IDSA)發表的《臨床傳染病》期刊指出,他們檢驗的禽畜肉品樣本中,有47%,也就是將近一半的樣本被驗出金黃色葡萄球菌;而這些帶菌樣本中更有52%,意即超過一半,菌株具有抗藥性,它們能抵抗至少3種抗生素。

此研究由「轉譯基因體研究中心」進行,透過DNA檢測,證實肉品本身是感染的來源。

這項研究在美國洛杉磯、芝加哥、羅德岱堡、弗拉格斯塔夫與華盛頓特區五個城市進行,從26間零售超市取得136件樣本,包括80種品牌的牛肉、豬肉、雞肉及火雞。

蘭斯普萊斯博士。圖片來自:NAU。身為此研究的資深研究員,也是轉譯基因體研究中心食品微生物學及環境健康研究主任,蘭斯普萊斯博士(Lance Price)表示:「這是我們首次知道美國禽畜肉品受到金黃色葡萄球菌感染的程度,且它們對抗生素具有抗藥性,這項發現極為重要。」

普萊斯表示:「抗藥性金黃色葡萄球菌在肉品中普遍存在,而且可能來自肉品的動物本身,這項事實引起憂慮;然而更值得注意的是,抗生素在當今的食品製造中如何使用。」

這項研究由皮尤慈善信託基金會所補助,其為《皮尤人類健康及農畜工業研究》的一部分。研究報告指出,在高密度養殖的畜牧場,牲畜與家禽持續被餵食低劑量的抗生素,這為抗藥性細菌提供了理想的繁殖環境,而這些細菌能從動物移轉到人類身上。

雖然金黃色葡萄球菌能在適當烹煮過程中被消滅,但一旦透過非適當的食物處理方式或廚房中的交叉感染,其仍會帶給消費者風險。

金黃色葡萄球菌是許多疾病的成因,從皮膚感染到有生命威脅的重症都在範圍內,諸如肺炎、心內膜炎及敗血症。

身為皮尤慈善信託的資深科學顧問,普萊斯博士表示:「抗生素是我們對抗金黃色葡萄球菌最重要的藥物,但是當此菌對3種、4種、5種或甚至9種不同的抗生素出現抗藥性,如同這次研究結果,醫生幾乎沒有選擇。」

事實上,美國政府當局一向對零售禽畜肉品有進行定期調查,檢驗它們是否有4種抗藥性細菌,其中並不包括這次事件的金黃色葡萄球菌。然而,此次研究顯示,肉品控管需要更全面性的檢驗計畫。

在4月7日的世界衛生日,IDSA展開一項計畫,以對抗具抗藥性的致命「超級細菌」。

IDSA的總裁、醫學博士詹姆斯休斯(James Hughes)表示:「過去70年來我們管理抗生素的方式已經出現錯誤。抗生素是一項珍貴的資源,就像能源一樣,我們有道德責任需要確保未來的世代也能享有它們。」

「對於解決此危機,IDSA有一個全面性、多方面的計劃,但時間已經不多了。現在,如果國會、聯邦機構和醫療機構不落實這些措施,美國各地將有愈來愈多的生命受到威脅,甚至死亡。」

休斯表示:「愈來愈多的細菌對現行的抗生素出現抗藥性,然而,目前愈來愈少公司投資開發新的抗生素。」 

IDSA陣重地警告,他們表示:「除非現在採取全面性的行動,否則,人類可能回到過去在抗生素出之前的時代;過去沒有這種奇蹟性的藥物時,因感染而造成的死亡率極高。」

Staph Bacteria Found on Half U.S. Meat, Poultry
FLAGSTAFF, Arizona, April 17, 2011 (ENS)

Drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, a bacteria linked to a wide range of human diseases, are present in meat and poultry from U.S. grocery stores at high rates, finds the first national assessment of antibiotic resistant S. aureus in the U.S. food supply.

Nearly half of the meat and poultry samples, 47 percent, were contaminated with S. aureus, and more than half of those bacteria, 52 percent, were resistant to at least three classes of antibiotics, according to the study published Friday in the journal "Clinical Infectious Diseases," a publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

The study by the Translational Genomics Research Institute used DNA testing to demonstrate that the food animals themselves were the major source of contamination.

Researchers collected and analyzed 136 samples covering 80 brands of beef, chicken, pork and turkey from 26 retail grocery stores in five U.S. cities: Los Angeles, Chicago, Fort Lauderdale, Flagstaff and Washington, DC.

"For the first time, we know how much of our meat and poultry is contaminated with antibiotic-resistant Staph, and it is substantial," said Lance Price, PhD, senior author of the study and director of TGen's Center for Food Microbiology and Environmental Health.

"The fact that drug-resistant S. aureus was so prevalent, and likely came from the food animals themselves, is troubling, and demands attention to how antibiotics are used in food-animal production today," Dr. Price said.

Densely-stocked industrial farms, where food animals are steadily fed low doses of antibiotics, are ideal breeding grounds for drug-resistant bacteria that move from animals to humans, finds the research, supported through a grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts as part of The Pew Campaign on Human Health and Industrial Farming.

Although staph should be killed with proper cooking, it may still pose a risk to consumers through improper food handling and cross-contamination in the kitchen. Click here for tips on how to avoid staph contamination in the kitchen.

S. aureus can cause a range of illnesses from minor skin infections to life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonia, endocarditis and sepsis.

"Antibiotics are the most important drugs that we have to treat staph infections; but when staph are resistant to three, four, five or even nine different antibiotics, like we saw in this study, that leaves physicians few options," said Dr. Price, a senior science advisor at the Pew Charitable Trusts..

The U.S. government routinely surveys retail meat and poultry for four types of drug-resistant bacteria, but S. aureus is not among them. The paper suggests that a more comprehensive inspection program is needed.

On April 7, World Health Day, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, IDSA, rolled out a plan to combat deadly antibiotic-resistant "super bugs."

"The way we've managed our antibiotics for the past 70 years has failed. Antibiotics are a precious resource, like energy, and we have a moral obligation to ensure they are available for future generations," said IDSA President James Hughes, MD.

"IDSA has a comprehensive, multifaceted plan to address this crisis, but time is running out. If such measures are not implemented now by Congress, federal agencies and health care providers across the country an increasing number of lives will be devastated and lost."

"Infections are becoming increasingly resistant to existing antibiotics, while the number of new antibiotics being developed has plummeted," said Dr. Hughes.

IDSA is ringing the alarm bells loudly, saying, "Unless sweeping actions are taken now, the future could resemble the days before these miracle drugs were developed."

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導