肯亞公開銷毀5噸非法象牙 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

肯亞公開銷毀5噸非法象牙

2011年07月27日
摘譯自2011年7月20日肯亞,奈洛比報導;段譽豪編譯;蔡麗伶審校

重達五噸的象牙將被焚毀。圖片來自:肯亞野生動物管理局。為了喚起大眾盜獵對非洲象影響的意識,盧薩卡協定工作隊(Lusaka Agreement Task Force)與肯亞政府20日在查沃國家公園(Tsavo National Park)焚毀了重達五噸的查獲非法象牙。

盧薩卡協定工作隊和肯尼亞野生動物管理局官員在19日堆起了一個象牙塚,並加了煤油等燃料準備燃燒,肯亞總統則在20日舉起火把點燃了這堆象牙。

2002年六月在新加坡沒收的象牙製品大部分都被焚毀,包括335跟象牙以及41,553枚印章。DNA分析指出,這批象牙應該來自尚比亞、馬拉威以及坦尚尼亞,而這批象牙是由馬拉威的利隆威(Lilongwe)輸出。

大象被國際自然保育聯盟(IUCN)列為瀕危物種,大象及其產製品的國際貿易,是被聯合國瀕臨絕種野生動植物國際貿易公約(CITES)所禁止的。

該條約規定允許銷毀查獲的象牙,因為它沒有合法的商業價值。然而,非法的完整象牙目前的價格粗估每公斤超過1500美金。

肯亞將這場活動,當成是對盧薩卡協定中「野生動植物非法交易偕同執法」的一場盛會,這是一個區域政府間對野生動物保育的協定,並在奈洛比設立了一個打擊野生動物犯罪相關的機構。

這次焚毀走私象牙的行動,是這類區域行動的第一次,也是在非洲焚毀非法象牙的第三次。前兩次分別是1989年在肯亞以及1992年在尚比亞。

 燃燒中的象牙。圖片來自:Born Free USA。焚燒象牙是第一個非洲大象法執法日慶祝活動的高潮,慶祝的主題是促進合作以打擊非洲盜獵大象以及販賣象牙的問題。

慶祝活動包括第一屆非洲野生動物執法獎,設立非洲大象法執法專戶,這是以支持保育大象為著眼點的執法行動基金。

非洲野生動物執法監控系統將以慶祝活動一部分的方式展開。

通過區域資料庫與應用軟體,官員將監控對販運以及非法交易的執法效率。這項資料庫的建制以及區域和國際回報機制將由聯合國機構、各國政府、私人企業、民間社會和研究機構共同執行。

上週,駐地奈洛比的非洲各國外交官被要求協助他們的國家加入盧薩卡協定,與已經加入的國家一同打擊非法野生動物交易。

盧薩卡協定特別工作組主任 Bonaventure Ebayi 說,「儘管生態系統對國際與區域經濟有重大貢獻,生態系統仍持續受到跨越國界的環境犯罪所威脅。」

環境犯罪已公認和其他重大組織犯罪有關,例如偽造文書、貪污、非法持有並使用武器,以及洗錢。

非營利組織生而自由(Born Free USA)執行長 Will Traver 說,「盜獵大象以及沒收象牙的新聞已經成為家常便飯。血腥、腐敗且無情的象牙貿易在70與80年代屠殺了60萬頭非洲象,而現在在非洲又死灰復燃了。」

Travers表示,根據生而自由所收集的數據顯示,過去6個月內有超過1.05萬公斤的象牙被海關與警方沒收,這代表著背後有1700頭大象因此喪命。

泰國、越南、莫三比克、中國、肯亞與葡萄牙都有查獲走私象牙。2011年4月在中國廣西的查緝中,查獲了707隻象牙,32只象牙手鐲以及一些犀牛角。

英國生而自由基金會野生動物貿易專家 Shelley Waterland 從英國飛往肯亞見證這次銷毀象牙的行動。「讓這把火把目光聚焦在這一日益嚴重的危機上,並激勵我們對血腥的象牙貿易採取行動,」Waterland 說,「不再販售庫存的象牙,也不再有象牙賣到每公斤1500美金,不再有巡護員與保育員因為試圖保護大象而被盜獵者殺害,也不再有失去親人的孤兒小象。」

「徵詢過許多國家之後,我在肯亞所傳達的訊息是相當明確的,」Waterland 表示,「象牙禁令必須全面恢復,我們必須提高我們的野生動物執法工作。」

國際象牙交易禁令在1989年10月由CITES締約國家所通過。不過,之後在非洲南部發生了兩次象牙庫存出清。第一次在1999年出售給日本,超過50噸的象牙每公斤大約60美金。最近一次是2008年,中國與日本在得到授權後取得了超過100噸,每公斤大約150美金。

不顧保育人士的警告,CITES常務委員會在2008年批准中國成為象牙貿易國。由於中產階級增加,中國成為對象牙需求最大的地方。

「隨著上百萬中國公民將足跡延伸到非洲大陸,建設道路、開礦以及伐木,他們與象牙貿易的暴力廣泛牽連,」生而自由組織宣稱。肯亞野生動物管理局定期會報告中國公民涉入象牙查獲案件的狀況。

設在倫敦的非營利組織環境調查署(EIA)呼籲銷毀所有非法的象牙存貨。

EIA執行董事 Mary Rice 說,「隨著如同在中國消費市場對象牙的貪婪,市場中有多達九成的非法象牙,沒有什麼安全或是無害合法的象牙交易這回事。這只會混淆消費者,刺激新的需求,並且讓黑市象牙更容易漂白。」

※ 盧薩卡協定工作隊(Lusaka Agreement Task Force,簡稱LATF),為非洲跨國性協議Lusaka Agreement on Cooperative Enforcement Operations Directed 的秘書組織,主要工作在查緝違法動植物買賣。

Kenya Sets Five Tonnes of Contraband Ivory Ablaze
NAIROBI, Kenya, July 20, 2011 (ENS)

To raise public awareness of the impact of poaching on Africa's elephants, the Lusaka Agreement Task Force and the Government of Kenya are burning five tonnes of seized ivory in Tsavo National Park on Wednesday.

Lusaka Agreement Task Force and Kenya Wildlife Service officials Tuesday built an elaborate pile of elephant tusks with kerosene jets and a grill to fuel the fire. Today, a flaming torch wielded by President Mwai Kibaki ignited the pile.

Most of the contraband ivory being burned - 335 tusks and 41,553 ivory signature stamps called hankos - was seized in Singapore in June 2002. DNA profiling to determine its probable origins identified the ivory as originating with elephants from Zambia, Malawi and Tanzania. It was exported from Lilongwe, Malawi.

Elephants are listed as Endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. International trade in elephants or their parts is prohibited under the UN's Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, CITES.

The treaty regulations allow the destruction of seized ivory since it has no legal commercial value. However, the price of illegal raw ivory is currently estimated to be in excess of $1,500 per kilo.

Kenya is hosting the event as a party to the Lusaka Agreement on Co-operative Enforcement Operations Directed at Illegal Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora, a regional inter-governmental agreement on wildlife conservation that has established a Nairobi-based agency for fighting wildlife crime.

The burning of contraband ivory is the first regional exercise of this kind and the third in Africa after Kenya's in 1989 and Zambia's in 1992.

The ivory burning is the climax of the first-ever African Elephant Law Enforcement Day celebrations on the theme of fostering cooperation to combat elephant poaching and ivory trafficking in Africa.

Celebrations include the first African Wildlife Law Enforcement Award and the launch of the African Elephant Law Enforcement Special Account, a fund for the support of law enforcement activities geared towards conserving the elephant.

The African Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System will be launched as part of the celebrations.

By means of a regional database and applications software, officials will monitor enforcement efforts against trafficking and illegal trade in wildlife. The work of building a database and reporting mechanism at regional and national levels will be carried out jointly by UN agencies, national governments, private industries, civil society and research institutions.

Last week, African diplomats based in Nairobi were asked to help their countries sign on to the Lusaka Agreement, joining the countries already fighting illegal wildlife trade.

"Despite the major contributions of ecosystem services to national and regional economies, the ecosystems continue to experience significant threats of environmental crimes that transcend national boundaries," said Ebayi.

Environmental crimes have been found to be linked other serious and organized crime, such as document fraud, corruption, possession and use of illegal weapons and money laundering.

Will Travers, chief executive of the nonprofit Born Free USA, said, "Reports of elephant poaching and ivory seizures are becoming an almost a daily occurrence. The bloody, corrupt and merciless ivory trade that precipitated the slaughter of 600,000 African elephants during the 1970s and 1980s is sadly booming across Africa again."

Data collated by Born Free reveals that in the last six months more than 10,500 kilos of ivory has been seized by customs and police officials. That is the last mortal remains of more than 1,700 elephants, said Travers.

Seizures have been made in Thailand, Vietnam, Mozambique, China, Kenya and Portugal. One seizure in Guangxi Province, China in April 2011 included 707 elephant tusks, 32 ivory bracelets, and a rhino horn.

Shelley Waterland, wildlife trade specialist with the UK-based Born Free Foundation, flew from England to Kenya to witness the ivory burn. "Let the fire shine a spotlight on this growing crisis and motivate us to take action against the bloody ivory trade," Waterland declared. "No more sales of stockpiled ivory; no more tusks sold for a staggering $1,500 a kilo; no more rangers and wardens killed by poachers trying to protect wild elephants; no more ivory orphans."

"Having consulted with many range states, my message from Kenya is clear," said Waterland. "The ivory ban must be reinstated in full and we must increase our wildlife law-enforcement effort."

An international ivory trade ban was agreed by the Parties to CITES in October 1989. However, since then two "one-off" sales of stockpiled ivory from Southern Africa have taken place. The first sale to Japan in 1999 save over 50 tonnes sold for about $60 per kilo. More recently in 2008, China and Japan were authorized to buy over 100 tonnes, which sold for about $150 per kilo.

Despite warnings from conservationists, the CITES Standing Committee approved China as an ivory trading nation in 2008. China is where demand for ivory is greatest, driven by an increasingly wealthy middle class.

"As more than a million Chinese nationals expand their footprint across the African Continent, building roads, mining, and carrying out timber extraction, they are widely implicated in ivory profiteering," claims Born Free. The Kenya Wildlife Service regularly reports the involvement of Chinese nationals in ivory seizures.

The London-based nonprofit Environmental Investigation Agency called for all other illegal stockpiles to be burned.

EIA executive director Mary Rice said, "With avaricious consumer markets for ivory such as that in China, where up to 90 percent of the ivory on the market place is of illegal origin, there is no such thing as a safe or harmless legal trade in ivory. This serves only to confuse consumers, stimulate fresh demand and allow the easy laundering of black market ivory."

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導