非洲最資深國家公園計畫鑽油 大猩猩家園恐不保 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

非洲最資深國家公園計畫鑽油 大猩猩家園恐不保

2013年06月20日
摘譯自2013年6月17日ENS柬埔寨,金邊報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

剛果維拉岡國家公園內的年輕大猩猩(照片由Nick Leonard提供)聯合國教科文組織世界遺產委員會17日要求剛果共和國撤銷於維拉岡國家公園境內鑽油的許可證。

該處部分鑽油許可由跨國石油集團所持有,包括英國石油公司Soco International PLC和法國石油鉅子Total SA。

維拉岡國家公園是非洲歷史最悠久的國家公園,也是非洲第一個成為世界遺產的位址。1979年,維拉岡國家公園因為擁有壯觀的地景,同時也是全非洲最多物種的棲息地,被登錄為世界遺產。

世界遺產委員會由21個管理聯合國教科文組織世界遺產名單的成員國輪替擔任。對於維拉岡國家公園可能會從世界遺產名單中除名,以及當地法律是否會被修改、好讓佔維拉岡國家公園85%的鑽油租地被准許開發,世界遺產委員會表達嚴正的關切。

保育團體警告,石油開發可能讓維拉岡國家公園失去世界遺產的地位,也會威脅當地民眾生計和珍稀物種。

Total石油公司上個月曾承諾不會在維拉岡國家公園境內開發,但在邊界地帶開發活動仍相當活躍。

世界自然基金會(WWF)17日指出,「Soco石油公司尚未對於保持維拉岡國家公園之完整性做出承諾。」

不過Soco已在其網站上表明立場,「第五區(剛果政府規劃的油氣探勘區)包含部分的世界遺產維拉岡國家公園和愛德華湖。Soco預計開發區域是愛德華湖周圍的低地大草原以及愛德華湖本身。我們必須強調,第五區並不在山地大猩猩的棲息地米可諾區內。許多媒體的臆測並不正確。此外,Soco業已聲明不會在維拉岡火山或維拉岡熱帶雨林等山地大猩猩棲息地內作業。」

WWF剛果分部採礦政策顧問René Ngongo說,「維拉岡國家公園是地球上最不該進行鑽油的地方。它具有世界性的保育價值,也是當地人生計之所依。我們呼籲儘快發展長遠永續的替代開發模式—真正對當地社群有所貢獻且不會威脅到當地瀕危物種的開發模式。」

「世界遺產委員會已發出清楚的聲明,這些珍貴的地區不該受到開發活動的傷害。石油開採可能永遠摧毀維拉岡國家公園,絕對不能放行。」法蘭克福動物學會執行長Christof Schenck表示。

World Heritage Body Wants Drilling Ban in Gorilla Sanctuary
PHNOM PENH, Cambodia, June 17, 2013 (ENS)

The international body that oversees World Heritage Sites today requested the cancellation of oil exploration permits in Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Some of the permits are held by international petroleum conglomerates, including UK-based Soco International PLC and French oil giant Total SA.

Virunga is Africa's oldest national park and one of the continent's first World Heritage Sites. It was inscribed in 1979 in recognition of its extraordinary landscapes, and because it is inhabited by more species than any other place in the continent.

The World Heritage Committee, a rotating group of 21 countries that manages the UNESCO World Heritage List, said it is deeply concerned that Virunga could be degazetted or that laws could be changed so that oil concessions covering 85 percent of the park's territory could be exploited.

Conservation organizations warn that oil exploration could cause the site to lose its World Heritage status and would put in peril local livelihoods and rare species.

Total last month promised to stay out of the park's current boundaries, but remains active just outside its borders.

The global conservation organization WWF said today, "Soco International PLC has not made a commitment to respect the integrity of the park."

But in a statement on its website, Soco clarified its position. "Block V encompasses an area of the Virunga National Park, a World Heritage Site, which includes part of Lake Edward. SOCO's area of interest is the lowland savannah area around Lake Edward and the lake itself."

"It is emphasised that Block V is not located within the mountainous Mikeno Sector, home to the famous Mountain Gorillas. This has been subject to much inaccurate media speculation. Furthermore, SOCO has stated it will never seek to have operations in the Mountain Gorilla habitat, the Virunga Volcanoes or the Virunga equatorial rainforest," the company said.

"Virunga National Park is one of the last places on Earth you should go looking for oil," said René Ngongo, mining and extractives policy advisor at WWF-DRC.

"The park is of global conservation importance and is vital for the livelihoods of many people living around it," said Ngongo. "We are urging alternative development models that are sustainable for the long term – development that provides real benefits to local communities and does not put endangered species at risk."

"The World Heritage Committee has made it clear today that these precious places are no-go areas for damaging extractive activities," said Christof Schenck, CEO of Frankfurt Zoological Society. "Oil exploration could destroy Virunga forever and must not go forward."

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

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