WHO:地球漸已無法供養人類的健康生活 | 環境資訊中心

WHO:地球漸已無法供養人類的健康生活

2014年05月23日
摘譯自2014年5月20日ENS瑞士,日內瓦報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

世界衛生組織(WHO)主席陳馮富珍博士。(圖:WHO會議影片截圖)世界衛生組織(WHO)陳馮富珍博士19日在日內瓦年度世界衛生大會上表示:「我們的地球正在逐漸失去維持人類健康的能力。」

陳馮富珍引述聯合國政府間氣候變遷專門委員會(IPCC)數百位科學家耗時7年撰寫的評估報告說道:「人類活動對環境的影響越來越嚴重。」

今年3月,WHO上修了空氣汙染健康影響效果。陳馮富珍指出,2012年,空氣汙染導致全球7百萬人死亡,成為全球最大的環境健康風險。此外,陳馮富珍直指環境破壞讓4種嚴重微生物疾病發生與蔓延。

「人類在地球上生活的方式改變,增加了致病微生物爆發的機會,從幾內亞爆發的伊波拉病毒到H5N1、H7N9禽流感和中東呼吸道症候群冠狀病毒等目前正在流行的疾病。WHO上周的報告已經說明,對傳染病防治來說,最迫切的危機是抗藥性。」

WHO國際癌症研究署發表的2014年世界癌症報告顯示,新癌症病例數量已創下新高,而且很可能持續上升。2010年,癌症耗費全球經濟成本近1.2兆美元。

陳馮富珍提出警告,「全球癌症死亡病例中,開發中國家佔了70%。許多的死亡病例沒有接受任何治療,甚至沒有止痛。」

比爾與美琳達蓋茨基金會聯合主席Melinda Gates呼籲大會代表支持全球第一個終結新生兒死亡的行動計畫。世衛官員同意新生兒死亡是可以避免的,每年有近3百萬個孩子在出生28天內死亡,260萬胎兒死於腹中,其中更有超過1百萬胎兒死於分娩時刻。

陳馮富珍亦對全球兒童肥胖比例日漸升高表示擔憂,尤其開發中國家的成長數字最快。「正如2014年世界衛生統計報告明白表示,我們的孩子越來越胖。世界上有些地方人們吃到撐死,有些地方卻是餓死。」

為了蒐集最佳的因應方案,陳馮富珍宣布已成立高層級的「終結兒童肥胖委員會」,針對解決兒童肥胖問題提出建議報告。

2015年後的議程包括終結可避免的胎兒、新生兒和兒童死亡,消滅被忽視的熱帶疾病以及結核病,「目標有野心也具可行性」陳馮富珍說。

Deteriorating Environment Threatens Human Health Worldwide
GENEVA, Switzerland, May 20, 2014 (ENS)

“Our planet, our planet, is losing its capacity to sustain human life in good health,” Dr. Margaret Chan, director-general of the World Health Organization warned Monday at the opening session of the annual World Health Assembly in Geneva.

“Signals about what human activities have done to the environment are becoming increasingly shrill,” said Dr. Chan, citing the latest assessment from the hundreds of scientists on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, released in March after seven years of study.

Also in March, the World Health Organization, WHO, revised its estimates of the health effects of air pollution upwards.

In 2012, exposure to air pollution killed around seven million people worldwide, making it the world’s largest single environmental health risk, Chan said.

Environmental destruction is allowing four serious microbial diseases to emerge and spread, said Chan.

“Changes in the way humanity inhabits the planet have given the volatile microbial world multiple new opportunities to exploit. Confirmation of an Ebola outbreak in Guinea brought to four the number of severe emerging viruses that are currently circulating, including the H5N1 and H7N9 avian influenza viruses and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus.”

“For communicable diseases, one of the most alarming crises is the rise of antimicrobial resistance, which WHO documented in a report last month,” Dr. Chan told the delegates.

Melinda Gates, co-chair of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, urged delegates to endorse the first global action plan to end newborn deaths. Health officials agree that newborn deaths are preventable, yet nearly three million babies every year die within their first 28 days of life. WHO says 2.6 million babies are stillborn, and more than one million of those deaths occur during labor.

The 2014 World Cancer Report, issued by WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer, shows that the number of new cancer cases has reached an all-time high and is projected to continue to rise. Estimates for 2010 indicate that cancer cost the world economy nearly $1.2 trillion.

Dr. Chan warned, “Developing countries now account for around 70 percent of all cancer deaths. Many of these people die without treatment, not even pain relief.”

In her address Dr. Chan expressed her concern about the increase worldwide of childhood obesity, with numbers climbing fastest in developing countries. “As the 2014 World Health Statistics report bluntly states, ‘Our children are getting fatter,’” she said. “Parts of the world are quite literally eating themselves to death. Other parts starve.”

To gather the best possible advice on dealing with this crisis, Dr. Chan announced that she has established a high-level Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity to produce a consensus report on which approaches are likely to be most effective.

For the post-2015 agenda, Dr. Chan sees “ambitious yet feasible goals” to end preventable maternal, neonatal, and childhood deaths, eliminate a large number of the neglected tropical diseases and end the tuberculosis epidemic.

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