俄羅斯木材追蹤計畫 欲控管非法伐木 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

俄羅斯木材追蹤計畫 欲控管非法伐木

2008年04月15日
摘譯自2008年4月10日ENS美國,華盛頓特區報導;楊佳珊編譯;蔡麗伶審校

俄羅斯自然資源部的聯邦森林管理局局長羅斯丘金。圖片來源:sleskhoz據一篇刊載於《俄羅斯森林回顧》雜誌的報告指出,俄羅斯在2011年前將會實施一套聯合資訊系統,來控管木材流通量,同時也期望能藉此幫助政府抵制非法伐木;該項新系統是由俄羅斯自然資源部的聯邦森林管理局(Russian Ministry of Natural Resource's Federal Agency for Forestry, or Rosleskhoz)局長羅斯丘金(Valery Roshchupkin),在一防制非法木材流通跨部門委員會的會議中發表。

透過聯合資訊系統,樹木從一開始砍伐、加工,接著移轉到出口都會進行追蹤調查,希望能減少俄羅斯境內的非法伐木行為;而委員會更計劃在第二階段,強制規定各加工廠的木材輸入與輸出量都必須採用既定的額度。

俄羅斯每年砍伐大約1億8000萬立方公尺的林木,然而自然資源部副局長李維(Semyon Levi)表示,「以俄羅斯砍伐量而言,非法伐木就佔了10%」。

根據聯邦森林管理局於3月12日出刊的最新報告指出,俄羅斯現存的林木蓄積量約有820億立方公尺,意即每年有6億3500萬立方公尺的林木可供砍伐;此外該報告也指出,俄羅斯已跨入全新的森林政策,包括自然資源交易自由化、聯邦及區域性政府的保證投資計畫及為企業規劃優惠的配套措施,並對外採取較嚴厲的海關政策。

來自俄羅斯卡瑞里亞地區的木材。圖片來源:Taiga Rescue Network而依據上述森林政策,該報告的結論是,無論在自然資源發展、優先計畫的實施以及促使外資投資在木材加工廠現代化的吸引要件上,俄羅斯已建立了一個良好環境,讓這些措施都得以逐步實行。

俄羅斯NGO森林協會表示,俄羅斯非法砍伐的原因可區分成3個部分:
1. 單純犯罪行為,例如未獲官方批准下進行伐木、竊取木材、偽造文書、金融犯罪、對當地居民採取暴力手段、當局違反規定或是貪污等。
2. 貧窮人口為了滿足對食物及燃料的基本需求,進而從事侵占森林,將林地轉為農耕用地,並竊取樹木的非法行為;而俄羅斯在政策上也缺乏執行力。
3. 由於政府授權可在中齡、幼期及成熟森林進行疏伐,讓疏伐成為商業木材的來源之一。

Russia Plans Timber Tracking to Control Illegal Logging
MOSCOW, Russia, April 10, 2008 (ENS)

By 2011 there will be a unified information system in operation in Russia for controlling timber circulation that may help the government combat illegal logging, according to a report in "Russian Forestry Review" magazine.

The new system was announced by Valery Roshchupkin, head of the Russian Ministry of Natural Resource's Federal Agency for Forestry, or Rosleskhoz, at a meeting of the Interdepartmental Commission on Prevention of Illegal Timber Circulation.

The system is intended to facilitate reduction in illegal logging in the country. The unified information system will track the transfer of timber from the moment it is harvested to its processing and transfer to export.

The second program developed by the commission is the introduction of compulsory accounting of timber at entry and exit of wood processing plants.

Semyon Levi, deputy head of the Ministry of Natural Resources, said 10 percent of all timber harvested in Russia is illegal. In total, 180 million cubic meters of lumber is felled in Russia each year.

Forests cover about 45 percent of the land area of Russia, and the most recent Rosleskhoz report, issued March 12, shows 82 billion cubic meters of "growing stock." Allowable annual forest cuts equal 635 million cubic meters, the report shows.

The report indicates that the country has put in place a "new national forest policy, the liberalization of access to forest resources, the guarantees of federal and regional governments towards implementation of investment projects and preferential packages for businesses, and a tough customs policy."

With these factors in place, the report concludes that "Russia has established proper conditions for forest resources development, implementation of priority projects and attraction of investments towards wood-processing industry modernization."

The Russian NGOs Forest Club says that illegal logging falls into three categories.

There are pure criminal activities such as logging without official permission, timber theft, falsification of documents, financial crimes, use of violence against local peoples, law violations by authorities, and corruption.

Then there is illegal activity in forests by poor people seeking to satisfy their basic needs for food and fuel. They will engage in forest encroachment and forest land conversion for agriculture usage, and poach trees.
And there is the lack of law enforcement, the NGOs say.

In addition, government authorized thinnings that are done in middle-aged, premature or mature forests, allow thinnings to be a source of commercial wood.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS