美總統參選人馬侃競選主軸:能源與環境 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

美總統參選人馬侃競選主軸:能源與環境

2008年09月04日
摘譯自2008年8月26日ENS 美國,俄亥俄州,達頓報導;YT Chen 編譯;莫聞審校

美國共和黨總統參選人馬侃(John McCain),8月26日宣佈他的競選搭檔為阿拉斯加州長帕林(Sarah Palin)。此一選擇將使得能源與環境雙議題成為在2008總統大選的競選主軸。「身為一個強力的地方首長,帕林州長在其任內已證明她具備足以勝任國家元首的能力。」 馬侃在達頓的演說中表示:「帕林州長在為新能源發展而奮鬥時,挑戰了大型石油公司影響力,她領導著一個對全美至關重大的一州。阿拉斯加州有著極為重要的能源資源,她已成為爭取美國能源獨立自主的領袖。」

帕林說在總統競選期間將不放棄她作為州長的責任。「身為5個孩子的母親,我知道如何同時處理多項任務,並將繼續敦促我們在阿拉斯加州共同規劃的改革道路上前進」。

實際上,不為美國民眾所知的是,提名帕林為共和黨副總統候選人對「共和黨環境保護組織」的政策主管底比索(Jim di Peso)而言,可說是相當震驚。「當我聽到消息,我真的嚇呆了,真是太令人驚訝了」 他在接受ENS訪問時說,「我不認為任何人預見這個結果。我認為可能的人選包括普藍提、羅姆尼,或是利伯曼。顯然,我們仍將支持馬侃,我們支持他所挑選的競選伙伴。我們試圖理解這個抉擇所代表的意義。」

「任何阿拉斯加州民選領袖都贊成開放北極國家野生動物保護區進行原油探勘。那是在阿拉斯加政治圈中必備的一環。但是馬侃反對在保護區進行鑽探,而帕林將必須遵守他的期望」這位政策主管表示。

他說,共和黨環境保護組織支持帕林州長以新輸油管將阿拉斯加州天然氣輸往南方的行動。在8月27日,帕林簽署一項法案,授予TransCanada輸油管公司營業執照以建造並經營總值達美元260億美元,長達1715英里的輸油管線。該條管線將從阿拉斯加北坡經加拿大輸送天然氣到南方48個州。另一個包括英國石油公司的跨國集團,已被摒除在此交易之外。

「該能源管線受到廣泛的支持。增加使用天然氣作為過渡性燃料,對於一個乾淨能源的未來是相當有利的。」底比索說。

針對高漲的石油和天然氣價格及因之產生的阿拉斯加州預算盈餘,帕林在8月25日簽署立法,對每位阿拉斯加州合格者提供1,200 美元的一次性支付2008年永續基金股息。該項法案也暫緩課徵一年期的電動機燃料稅款,該項措施涵蓋汽油,海上及空中燃料。

「特別是在阿拉斯加州的郊區,特別很多人正面臨養家活口與暖氣需求之間的抉擇,他們可用本州供給能源的結餘來支付一些賬單」帕林說。

今年5月,帕林反對內政部長坎培松根據聯邦《瀕危物種法》提名北極熊為瀕臨絕種名單。她以訴訟的方式阻止這項提名,因為她擔心這將阻礙石油與天然氣在阿拉斯加沿岸北極熊棲息地的開採。 她說坎培松所宣稱的氣候變遷模型與環境學家所預測因氣候變遷所引發的北極冰融是「不可靠」的。

目前整著手拯救受氣候變遷威脅的「野生物保衛者行動基金會」執行長史力克森(Rodger Schlickeisen),也聲稱對選擇帕林為副手的決定感到「震驚」。「帕林女士已經透過行動清楚地表明在處理全球暖化影響方面,她不願比布希政府做的更多」 他說。

「她最近的作為是控告美國漁業暨野生動物局,令其將北極熊自瀕危物種名單中移除,把大石油公司看得比堅實的科學還重。的確難以置信,她的主張等於讓自身置於比布希政府還右派的位置。」 「帕林的丈夫為英國石油公司工作,當涉及環境時總是優先考量特定利益。在政績乏善可陳的兩年州長任內,她積極游說開放北極國家野生動物保護區沿岸,以進行石油探勘,並把特殊利益置於科學之前」 史力克森說。

保守的共和黨人追隨馬侃的選擇。自由聯盟行動暨自由律師主席,以及自由大學法學院院長史戴夫(Mathew Staver),認為選擇帕林「非常明智」。

在明尼阿波利斯國家保守黨領袖的會議時,史戴夫說,「她已經不僅談論能源危機,她已經積極工作建立解決辦法」。但是保育選民聯盟今天表示對馬侃的選擇「深深的失望」 。 「令人遺憾地,從她支持在北極保護區和離岸進行石油探勘, 帕林州長不過只是繼續布希,─錢尼政府和其大石油公司的失敗政策,使我們更倚賴國外石油進口」 LCV總裁吉恩卡賓斯基說道。「她已經請求馬侃改變他反對在北極探勘的立場,身為一個競選夥伴,她將有許多機會進行勸說。」

這個組合現在與28日晚參議員歐巴馬長遠的能源計畫形成更強烈的對比,該計畫將創造數百萬個新工作,改進國家安全,並且降低全球暖化。

帕林在2006年12月4日42歲時宣誓就職州長,成為出生於阿拉斯加州且最年輕的的第一個女州長。生於愛達荷而成長於瓦西利亞,帕林獲得愛達荷大學的新聞學位後返回阿拉斯加,她的丈夫陶德從事商業漁業。現在陶德冬天在英國石油公司於阿拉斯加北坡一處油田工作,並且繼續在夏季捕魚。

帕林從1992年到1996年於Wasilla市議會服務兩個任期,之後她成為Wasilla市長,一個距安克拉治郡東北43英里的一個小鎮。 2003年,帕林被任命阿拉斯加石油天然氣保護委員會的倫理委員。隔年,她辭職抗議她稱之為「缺乏倫理道德」的阿拉斯加共和黨領導人,他們忽視了她對違法與利益衝突的控訴。她對兩名共和黨官員正式提出控告,該官員均雙雙辭職。

作為州長,帕林正在阿拉斯加州推動石油資源的開發,但也對於石油公司利潤進行加稅。她已經宣佈計畫成立新的次級內閣顧問團隊,處理氣候變遷和降低阿拉斯加州溫室氣體排放。 帕林並已宣佈9月為阿拉斯加州能源效率月,鼓勵阿拉斯加民眾透過能源節約和更有效地使用現有的能源來降低成本。

底比索說,馬侃─帕林組合將有利於形成關於環境議題的健全辯論。「作為一個組織,我們試圖完成的事情是將環境議題從黨派分明的政治足球秀中移除。一個共和黨人蔑視而民主黨人自以為他們已經壟斷的議題上」 。

他接著說:「我們必須將它從黨派困局中解放出來,馬侃的價值是他已經往該方向邁進。他已直接面對大多數共和黨人欲避開的問題。馬侃願意嚴肅的對待環境議題。」

Energy, Environment Will Be Central to McCain-Palin Campaign
DAYTON, Ohio, August 29, 2008 (ENS)

U.S. Senator John McCain, the presumptive Republican nominee for president, today announced that he has selected Alaska Governor Sarah Palin to be his running mate and to serve as his vice president. His choice puts the twin issues of energy and environment at the center of the 2008 election campaign.

Governor Palin is a tough executive who has demonstrated during her time in office that she is ready to be president," McCain said today in Dayton.

"Governor Palin has challenged the influence of the big oil companies while fighting for the development of new energy resources," said McCain. "She leads a state that matters to every one of us - Alaska has significant energy resources - and she has been a leader in the fight to make America energy independent."

Palin said she would not abandon her responsibilities as governor during the presidential race. "As the mother of five, I know how to multi-task, and I will continue to promote the path of reform that we set out on together in the state of Alaska," she said.

Virtually unknown to the American public, Palin in the role of the Republican vice presidential nominee came as a shock to Jim di Peso, policy director of the advocacy group Republicans for Environmental Protection, or REP America.

I was bowled over when I heard the news - what a surprise," he told ENS in an interview. "I don't think anyone saw this coming. I thought Pawlenty, Romney, possibly Lieberman. Obviously, we support McCain, we're going to support his choice of running mate. We're trying to figure out what it all means."

"Any elected leader in Alaska is in favor of opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to drilling," said di Peso. "That's just part of the furniture in Alaska politics."

But McCain is opposed to drilling in the refuge, and now Palin "will have to abide by his wishes," said di Peso. "The ensign doesn't get to tell the admiral what to do."

He said REP America supports Governor Palin's moves to move Alaskan natural gas south with a new pipeline.

On Wednesday, Palin signed a bill into law giving the state of Alaska authority to award TransCanada Pipelines a license to build and operate the $26 billion dollar 1,715-mile pipeline. It will transport natural gas from the North Slope through Canada to the lower 48 states. Another consortium, including BP, that had sought pipeline rights was left out of the deal.

"That energy pipeline enjoys broad support," said di Peso. "It is useful in increasing the use of gas as a bridge fuel to a clean energy future."

In response to high oil and gas prices, and the resulting Alaska budget surplus, on Monday Palin signed legislation providing a one-time special payment of $1,200 to every Alaskan eligible for the 2008 Permanent Fund dividend. The bill'also suspends the state's motor fuel tax on gasoline, marine fuel, and aviation fuel for a year.

"In rural Alaska, particularly, many people are facing a choice between feeding their families and heating their homes, and they could use this payment from the state's energy-generated surplus to cover some of those bills," Palin said.

In May, Palin objected to the decision of Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne to list polar bears as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. She threatened a lawsuit to stop the listing, fearing that it would hurt oil and gas development in the bears' habitat off Alaska's coasts.

She says the climate change models cited by Kempthorne and environmentalists that predict melting of Arctic ice due to climate change are "unreliable."

Rodger Schlickeisen, president of Defenders of Wildlife Action Fund, has worked to protect the polar bear from climate change. Today he called the choice of Palin "shocking."

"Ms. Palin has made it clear through her actions that she is unwilling to do even as much as the Bush administration to address the impacts of global warming," he said.

"Her most recent effort has been to sue the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to remove the polar bear from the endangered species list, putting Big Oil before sound science. As unbelievable as this may sound, this actually puts her to the right of the Bush administration."

"Sarah Palin, whose husband works for BP, formerly British Petroleum, has repeatedly put special interests first when it comes to the environment. In her scant two years as governor, she has lobbied aggressively to open up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to drilling, pushed for more drilling off of Alaska's coasts, and put special interests above science," Schlickeisen said.

Conservative Republicans are behind McCain's choice. Mathew Staver, chairman of Liberty Alliance Action, chairman of Liberty Counsel and dean of Liberty University School of Law, called the choice of Palin "absolutely brilliant."

Attending a meeting of national conservative leaders in Minneapolis where the Republican National Convention opens on Monday, Staver said, "She has not merely talked about the energy crisis, she has actively worked to create solutions."

But the League of Conservation Voters today expressed its "deep disappointment" with McCain's choice.
"Unfortunately, with her support for drilling in the Arctic Refuge and off our coasts, Governor Palin will simply continue the failed policies of the Bush-Cheney administration and their Big Oil friends - policies that could make us even more dependent on foreign oil," said LCV President Gene Karpinski said. "Governor Palin characterizes McCain's flip-flop on drilling offshore as a positive step in his transformation from maverick to Big Oil's best friend," Karpinsky said. "She has implored McCain to change his position against drilling in the Arctic - something she will have plenty of opportunities to pursue as his running mate."

This ticket now stands in even starker contrast to the visionary energy plan laid out by Senator Obama last night, which will create millions of new jobs, improve our national security, and reduce global warming pollution.

When she took the oath of office on December 4, 2006 at the age of 42, Palin became the first female governor of Alaska, the youngest, and the first governor born after Alaska achieved statehood.

Born in Idaho and raised in Wasilla, Alaska, Palin earned a journalism degree from the University of Idaho and returned to Alaska where she worked as a commercial fisherwoman with her husband, Todd, who now works for the energy corporation BP at an oil field on Alaska's North Slope in winter and continues to fish in summer.

Palin served two terms on the Wasilla City Council from 1992 to 1996, when she became mayor of Wasilla, a small town 43 miles northeast of Anchorage.

In 2003, Palin was appointed ethics commissioner of the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. She resigned the following year in protest over what she called the "lack of ethics" of fellow Alaskan Republican leaders, who ignored her complaints of legal violations and conflicts of interest. She filed formal complaints against two Republican officials, who both resigned.

As governor, Palin has promoted oil resource development in Alaska, but also helped pass a tax increase on oil company profits. She has announced plans to create a new sub-cabinet group of advisors to address climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Alaska.

Palin proclaimed September as Energy Efficiency Month in Alaska. The proclamation encourages Alaskans to lower their costs by conserving energy and by using existing energy more efficiently.

REP America's di Peso says the McCain-Palin ticket will be good for a healthy debate on environmental issues.

"One of the things we're trying to accomplish as an organization is to move the environment from being a partisan poltical football - an issue that Republicans disdain and Democrats assume that they've cornered the market on," he told ENS.

We've got to get it out of the partisan box," he said. "The value of McCain is that he has moved in that direction. He has confronted issues that most Republicans have shied away from. McCain is willing to treat the issue of environmental protection on its merits as a serious concern."

全文及圖片詳見:ENS