聯合國:數千萬個環保工作機會浮現 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

聯合國:數千萬個環保工作機會浮現

2008年09月30日
摘譯自2008年9月25日ENS美國,紐約州,紐約市報導;江昱均編譯;蔡麗伶審校

Planar Energy Devices的勞工拿著新型的鋰電池 (圖片來源:Planar Energy Devices)根據聯合國針對逐漸浮現的全球綠色經濟衝擊效應所進行的一份新調查報告指出,未來數十年,因應氣候變遷而採取的各種行動將衍生並創造數千萬個新的環保工作機會。綠色工作將降低對企業和經濟體的環境衝擊,最終將可達到永續經營的目的。

此項報告指出各國在2009年底於哥本哈根進行重要的聯合國氣候變遷大會時,將宣佈「深遠且決定性的新氣候變遷協議」,對加速綠色工作成長。這項協議在過去2年來一直是國際間密集協商的主題,它將承接2012年底到期的京都議定書。

於9月24日發布的這份名為「綠色工作:朝向永續環保、低碳世界的適當職業」的聯合國報告,發現為了減緩氣候變遷及其影響所做的各種努力已改變了僱傭和投資模式,並在許多部門和經濟體裡產生了許多新的工作機會,且可能在已開發和開發中國家再創數百萬個工作機會。

然而,聯合國的報告也發現氣候變遷的過程仍會持續對勞工家庭,尤其是仰賴農業和觀光業維生的家庭,帶來負面影響。

世界各地已出現眾多的綠色工作。根據這份新報告中引述的研究顯示,在中國,60萬名員工受雇從事太陽熱能製造與安裝設備的工作,像是太陽能熱水器。在南非,原本失業的2萬5千名員工如今也受雇從事保育工作,為水資源開發工作服務。

綠色工作在其他國家也漸露曙光。奈及利亞以樹薯和蔗糖作物作為原料的生質燃料的工業讓企業維持20萬名人力的需求量。

此項研究也預測印度在2025 年之前在生質能氣化方面將產生90萬個工作機會,其中30萬名參與氣化爐製造,60萬名則投入煤磚和煤丸製程以及燃料供應鏈等領域。

雖然這項報告對因應氣候變遷而衍生的新工作機會大致上抱持樂觀的態度,卻也同時警告許多新的工作可能「骯髒、危險而且艱困」。

報告聲明包括農業和回收等相關部門往往提供低薪工資、不穩定的僱傭契約和長期暴露於對身體有害的物質的環境,這些都必須立即改善。

另外報告也警告幾乎沒有適合弱勢族群的綠色工作機會。包含占全球人力資源43%的13億低收入人口,他們的收入不足以使他們及家人跨越每人每天2美元的貧戶門檻,另外也包含未來10年即將投入就業市場的5億名青壯年人口。

這份報告也呼籲「公平過渡期」,此乃為了因轉換成綠色經濟而受影響的人,以及必須適應氣候變遷,而有管道接觸其他企業與勞動人口各種經濟和就業機會。

此份報告其他的主要發現還包括:(節錄)

  •  報告引述一項研究指出,環保產品與服務的全球市場預估將從現今的每年1兆3千7百億美元增加2倍,至2020年達到2兆7千4百億美元。
  • 上述市場半數為能源效率、永續運輸平衡、水供應、公共衛生與廢棄物管理。以德國為例,環境科技將在2030前成長4倍,占工業輸出16%,因此所雇用的勞工人數也將超越該國最大的機械器具與汽車工業。
  • 現今回收與廢棄物處理在中國需要1千萬名人力,在巴西則是50萬名。面臨物價上揚,這個部份預期將會在許多國家快速成長。
UN: Tens of Millions of New Green Jobs on the Horizon
NEW YORK, New York, September 25, 2008 (ENS)

Efforts to tackle climate change could result in the creation of millions of new green jobs in the coming decades, according to a new report from the United Nations on the impact of the emerging global green economy. Green jobs reduce the environmental impact of enterprises and economic sectors, ultimately to levels that are sustainable.

The report says that delivery of a "deep and decisive new climate agreement" when countries meet for the crucial UN climate convention meeting in Copenhagen in late 2009 will be vital for accelerating green job growth. The subject of intense international negotiations for the past two years, the agreement would be the successor to the Kyoto Protocol which expires at the end of 2012.

Entitled "Green Jobs: Towards Decent work in a Sustainable, Low-Carbon World," the UN report released Wednesday finds that changing patterns of employment and investment resulting from efforts to reduce climate change and its effects are already generating new jobs in many sectors and economies, and could create millions more in both developed and developing countries.

Yet, the process of climate change will continue to have negative effects on workers and their families, especially those whose livelihoods depend on agriculture and tourism, the UN report also finds.

Green jobs are already being created throughout the world. In China, 600,000 people are already employed in solar thermal making and installing products such as solar water heaters, according to a study cited in the new report. In South Africa, 25,000 previously unemployed people are now employed in conservation as part of the Working for Water initiative.

Green jobs are on the horizon for other countries as well. In Nigeria, a biofuels industry based on cassava and sugar cane crops may sustain an industry employing 200,000 people.

India could generate 900,000 jobs by 2025 in biomass gasification of which 300,000 would be in the manufacturing of stoves and 600,000 in areas such as processing into briquettes and pellets and the fuel supply chain, the study estimates.

Though the report is generally optimistic about the creation of new jobs to address climate change, it also warns that many of these new jobs can be "dirty, dangerous and difficult."

Sectors of concern include agriculture and recycling where all too often low pay, insecure employment contracts and exposure to health hazardous materials needs to change fast, the report states.

The report warns that too few green jobs are being created for the most vulnerable. These vulnerable people are the 1.3 billion working poor, who make up 43 percent of the global workforce and earn too little to lift them and their dependants above the poverty threshold of US$2 per person, per day, and the estimated 500 million youth who will be seeking work over the next 10 years.

The report calls for "just transitions" for those affected by transformation to a green economy and for those who must also adapt to climate change with access to alternative economic and employment opportunities for enterprises and workers.

Among other key findings in the report:

  • The global market for environmental products and services is projected to double from US$1.37 trillion per year at present to US$2.74 trillion by 2020, according to a study cited in the report.
  • Half of this market is in energy efficiency and the balance in sustainable transport, water supply, sanitation and waste management. In Germany for example, environmental technology is to grow fourfold to 16 per cent of industrial output by 2030, with employment in this sector surpassing that in the country's big machine tool and automotive industries.
  • Recycling and waste management employs an estimated 10 million in China and 500,000 in Brazil today. This sector is expected to grow rapidly in many countries in the face of escalating commodity prices.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS