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保育夏威夷特有生物 從保全生態系統下手

2008年10月08日
摘譯自2008年10月5日ENS美國,夏威夷,檀香山報導;鄭佳宜編譯;莫聞審校

計畫列入保護名單可愛島特有鳥類akikiki;圖片來源:Eric VanderWerf courtesy American Bird Conservancy美國聯邦政府目前打算將夏威夷可愛島(Kauai)上48種特有生物列入瀕危物種名單,並規劃關鍵棲地。對此,保育人士反應不一。有支持者擁護漁業暨野生動物局這次保全整個生態系統的作法,另一種聲音則認為此案早在柯林頓時期便已提出,只是遭布希政府擱置。

這項計劃由美國內政部長坎培松(Dirk Kempthome)在9月底公佈,計畫列入保護名單的生物包括45種植物、兩種可愛島鳥類akikiki和akeke'e,以及夏威夷紋翅蠅。

坎培松表示,這份計畫「應用了新發展的生態系統途徑(ecosystem-based approach)來保育物種。」「透過強調這些生態系統普遍面臨的危機,有助於我們更有效率地專注在保育和復育這些共享的棲地。這套整合途徑不僅有助於復育名單上的物種,同一生態社群的其他物種也會一同受益。」

這些物種分布在六個不同的生態系統,從山地雨林、潮溼低地到乾燥懸崖,涵蓋27674英畝、共22個不相通的地理區域將被劃分為關鍵棲地。

實際上只有1646英畝屬於新的關鍵棲地,根據漁業暨野生動物局說法,剩下26028英畝和現有的關鍵棲地重疊。

這次提出的關鍵棲地主要在夏威夷州,其中5970英畝屬於私人土地,分由12個不同的地主持有。

一些保育學者認為這次計畫符合政府先前保護物種的承諾。

辛格勒(Marjorie Ziegler)執掌有58年歷史的夏威夷火奴魯魯保育委員會,他對此表示:「我們對這次的生態系統途徑頗為滿意,因其頗為合理。這是政府第一次結合動植物一起保育,並將生態系統途徑用於復育。」

生物多樣性中心資深律師司涅佗(Mike Senatore)則抱持不同看法,尤其針對坎培松強調此舉乃新措施表達反對:「早在柯林頓政府就已針對保育物種發展實行一套生態系統途徑,但遭布希政府全盤擱置。這次名單上,即使不是全部也有絕大多數物種屬於漁業暨野生動物局保護先前決定從瀕危物種法案上除名的數百種物種,生物多樣性中心早已將它們列為請願立法保育的名單,並敦促政府介入保育。」

計畫列入保護名單可愛島特有鳥類akeke'e;圖片來源:American Bird Conservancy其他保育團體也曾要求政府保育稀有鳥類。

美國鳥類保育協會和夏威夷鳥類專家凡得瓦(Eric VanderWerf)都曾為這些這些物種請願,'akikiki和'akeke'e兩種特有鳥從2000年開始急遽減少,到2007年估計只剩下1400和3500隻。

漁業暨野生動物局太平洋島嶼辦公室的田野主管藍儂(Patrick Leonard)説:「接下來幾年,我們計畫以這套生態系統途徑劃出更多關鍵棲地,以涵括夏威夷島嶼全部特有種的棲地。」

根據該計畫,針對歐胡島和大島各有一項規則,茂宜島、莫洛凱島和拉拿夷島則適用同一項規則,另有一項規則是針對棲息在不只一個島嶼的夏威夷物種;每項規則會列出各個物種的瀕危狀態,「倘若可行,」藍儂表示,也會針對物種建議關鍵棲地。

Ecosystem Approach to Hawaii Wildlife Welcome But Not New
HONOLULU, Hawaii, October 5. 2008 (ENS)

Conservationists are expressing mixed reactions to the federal government's proposal to add 48 species found only on the island of Kauai to the federal endangered species list and also to designate critical habitat for them. While advocates support the ecosystem approach proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, some say it was used during the Clinton administration but abandoned under President Bush.

The proposal, made on Tuesday by Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne includes 45 plants, two Kauai birds - the 'akikiki and 'akeke'e - and one Hawaiian picture-wing fly.

Kempthorne said the proposal applies "a newly developed, ecosystem-based approach to species conservation."

"By addressing the common threats that occur across these ecosystems, we can more effectively focus our conservation efforts on restoring the functions of these shared habitats," said Kempthorne. "This holistic approach will benefit the recovery of the listed species and also all the species within the native ecological community."

The species are found in six ecosystem types from rainforest mountains to moist lowlands and dry cliffs. Twenty-two separate geographic areas covering 27,674 acres are being proposed as critical habitat.
But only 1,646 acres are proposed as new critical habitat. The Service says 26,028 acres overlap existing critical habitat set aside for other species.

The majority of the proposed critical habitat is located on State of Hawaii lands, while 5,970 acres are located on private lands owned by approximately 12 different landowners.

Some conservationists say the proposal holds promise for species protection.

"We are pleased about the ecosystem approach - it makes sense. It looks like for the first time they're combining plants and animals, and taking an ecosystem approach toward recovery," said Marjorie Ziegler, who heads the 58 year-old Honolulu-based Conservation Council for Hawaii.

But Mike Senatore, senior counsel with the Center for Biological Diversity, takes issue with Kempthorne's assertion that the ecosystem approach is new.

"It was the Clinton administration that developed and implemented an ecosystem-based approach to species conservation - an approach that the Bush administration all but disregarded," he said.

"Most, if not all of these species, have been the subject of listing petitions and ongoing litigation by the Center for Biological Diversity to force the administration to protect hundreds of species that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service previously had determined warranted protection under the Endangered Species Act," said Senatore.

Other conservation organizations also have been requesting protection for the rare birds.

The American Bird Conservancy and Hawaiian bird expert Eric VanderWerf had petitioned the agency requesting protection for them. There are estimated to be fewer than 1,400 'akikiki and fewer than 3,500 'akeke'e in 2007. The populations of both birds dropped drastically since 2000, the group says.

Patrick Leonard, field supervisor with the Pacific Islands office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service says that over the next few years, the Service plans to use the ecosystem approach to propose listing and designating critical habitat for all of the endemic candidate species from the Hawaiian Islands.

There will be one rule each for Oahu and the Big Island of Hawaii and a single rule for the three islands of Maui, Molokai and Lanai.

The Service will also propose a single rule for Hawaiian species that are found on multiple islands. Each rule will propose endangered or threatened status for each species and will also propose critical habitat for species "when prudent," said Leonard.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS