消失中的北極 物種滅絕風險正在提高 | 環境資訊中心

消失中的北極 物種滅絕風險正在提高



在13日公佈的一份報告中,國際野生動物關懷組織(Care for the Wild International)與生物多樣性中心(Center for Biological Diversity)指出,有17種北極的動物,正在氣候變遷以及海洋酸化的影響下掙扎求生。

在阿拉斯加的麝牛。圖片節錄自: Pete Haworth相本。受到危害的物種大多是哺乳動物──北極狐、北極熊、北美馴鹿(或馴鹿)、麝牛以及太平洋海象,還有四種鯨魚──灰鯨、白鯨、露脊鯨與獨角鯨。另外有四種海豹也有風險風險,包括了斑環海豹、髯海豹、豎琴海豹與授帶海豹。報告中也將三種海鳥列入危險名單,他們是小嘴斑海雀、白眶絨鴨以及象牙海鷗。此外,一種終生浮游的海生蝸牛──海蝶(sea butterfly),也有滅絕的風險。












「北極生物所面臨的困境,實際上是一個系統性的先期預兆,我們需要政府即刻採取行動,以保護北極生態系統以免崩潰。」國際野生動物關懷組織的計畫主持人瓊斯(Mark Jones)說,「如果我們不做,這影響將會是災難性的,不僅會發生在北極,而會發生在整個地球。」


生態保育學家建議,大氣中的二氧化碳濃度必須從現在的390 ppm,下降到不超過325至350 ppm,以避免氣候變化與海洋酸化帶來的災難性影響,並且要要恢復北極海冰的面積到25年前的狀況。


點擊這裡閱讀報告全文(英文),《滅絕:不只是北極熊的事》 。

Arctic Warms, Sea Ice Shrinks, Extinction Risk Grows
SAN FRANCISCO, California, September 14, 2010 (ENS)

From foxes to whales to walruses to plankton, Arctic species are being pushed toward extinction by rapid climate change, finds a new report by two conservation groups.

In a report released Monday, the Center for Biological Diversity and Care for the Wild International document the situations of 17 Arctic animals trying to survive the effects of climate change and ocean acidification.

Most of the 17 imperiled species are mammals - the Arctic fox, polar bear, caribou or reindeer, muskox, and Pacific walrus, as well as four whales - gray, beluga, bowhead and narwhal. Four ice seals are also at risk - the ringed, bearded, harp and ribbon seals. The report names three seabirds in jeopardy - the Kittlitz's murrelet, spectacled eider and ivory gull; and also finds the sea butterfly, a species of plankton, to be at risk of extinction.

This year, the Northwest Passage and the Northern Sea Route are largely free of ice, allowing the potential for a first circumnavigation of the Arctic Ocean now being attempted by two expeditions - one from Norway and one from Russia.

The conservation groups say this rapid disappearance and thinning of the sea ice is having devastating effects on the many species that depend on it for rearing young, hunting, resting and avoiding predators.

Arctic whales are at risk from increasing offshore oil drilling and shipping activity as areas become ice-free, which heightens threats from oil spills, ship strikes and noise.

Sea ice loss is forcing Pacific walrus mothers and calves to come to shore, where young can be trampled to death in stampedes.

In February 2008 the Center for Biological Diversity filed a formal scientific petition with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service requesting protection of the Pacific walrus under the Endangered Species Act. Under a lawsuit settlement, the Service must make a decision as to whether the species should be protected by January 31, 2011.

Early sea-ice breakup prematurely separates ringed and harp seal mothers from their pups before the pups are big enough to survive, the conservation groups report.

Meanwhile, the warming Arctic is still putting polar bears at risk. Eight of the world's 19 polar bear populations are declining as they struggle to raise young and hunt for food on shrinking ice sheets.

On land, tundra habitat is moving northward, thawing permafrost threatens to drain wetlands, and extreme winter weather events are causing die-offs of Arctic grazers like muskoxen that are prevented from reaching their food.

The Arctic fox is disappearing from the southern edge of the tundra as larger, more dominant red foxes move northward and lemming prey grow less abundant as temperatures warm.

Seabirds that forage near glaciers and sea ice are losing their feeding grounds and resting places, while thawing permafrost threatens to drain their wetland breeding habitat.

Tundra dwellers like the caribou and muskox are being affected by warmer spring temperatures that alter food abundance, as well as extreme winter weather events leaving dense snow and ice crusts that obstruct their access to food, the groups report.

Lives of the Arctic's smallest creatures as well as the largest are being disrupted by climate warming.

The oceans have absorbed more than a quarter of all of human carbon dioxide emissions - generated by burning coal, oil and natural gas. The addition of this vast quantity of CO2 is changing the chemistry of ocean water, turning it more acidic, scientists around the world have documented.

The Arctic Ocean is becoming corrosive to shell-building creatures like plankton and clams more quickly than temperate waters. "It could become lethal to the most sensitive shell-builders by 2050, threatening the marine ecosystem with collapse," the groups state in their report.

"The plight of Arctic species is effectively acting as an early warning system. We need our governments to act now to protect the Arctic ecosystem from collapse," said Mark Jones, programs director for Care for the Wild International. "If we don't, the impacts will be devastating, not just for the Arctic, but for the whole planet."

The report concludes that science-based actions are urgently needed to protect Arctic wildlife.

Atmospheric CO2 must be reduced from its current level of 390 parts per million to, at most, 325 to 350 ppm to avoid catastrophic impacts from climate change and ocean acidification, and to restore Arctic sea ice to the size it was 25 years ago, the conservationists advise.

To protect Arctic species, the groups urge the curbing of powerful, short-lived greenhouse pollutants like black carbon and methane, the prevention of new oil and gas development in the Arctic, and the reduction of threats to Arctic wildlife from overhunting and contaminants.

Click here to read the report, "Extinction: It's Not Just for Polar Bears."