印度將大象列為國寶級保育動物 | 環境資訊中心

印度將大象列為國寶級保育動物

2010年10月27日
摘譯自2010年10月22日ENS印度,新德里報導;段譽豪編譯;蔡麗伶審校

大象在一處印度森林內揚起塵土。圖片來自:印度環境與森林部。印度環境部宣布將大象列入國寶級動物,以增加對其境內近29000頭大象的保護。

這項政府發出的公告,在周四(10月21日)由森林部長兼大象計畫主任普拉薩德(A.N. Prasad)所簽署。

這項公告的依據是,全國野生動物局常設委員會在10月13日所提出的保護狀態建議書。

該部的大象專案小組在8月31日的一份報告中建議,稱此舉將有助於保護亞洲最大的哺乳類動物。

「宣告大象為國寶級動物將對其生態敏感的特性賦予應有的地位。這也會反映出大象在我們(印度)多元文化、傳統以及民間傳說中的特殊性。」

環境部長拉梅許(Jairam Ramesh)宣布大象專案小組的報告時說,大象是「我們的國寶」,他們應該受到與老虎同樣等級的保育對待以及保護程度。

在報告中,使用了大象的當地俗名「Gajah」稱呼大象,宣告說「小組的工作目標十分明確,印度有能力保護大象以及他們所居住的森林。」

在印度,被圈養的3500頭大象中,有些在齋浦爾琥珀堡等待著讓遊客騎乘。圖片節錄自:Galenfry Singer部落格。「沒有大象的印度是令人無法接受的。但是要讓印度的大象生存下去,需要以永續的方法進行,」專案小組寫道。

亞洲有60%的大象生活在印度,境內18個州的野生象群數量約在26000左右,另外還有約3500圈養的大象。

今年9月,印度孟加拉邦西部的傑爾拜古裡地區(Jalpaiguri district)就有7頭大象死於火車的碰撞。近年來有數十頭野生大象因為火車碰撞而死亡,其中有些發生在同樣的地區內。

人與大象之間存在著衝突問題:將土地用作採礦、棲地的破壞以及森林覆蓋率降低等。

專案小組在報告中寫道,「生活空間的減少並不會造成立即的滅絕,而這種人象之間的緊張關係,必須受到調整。」

專案小組寫道,「我們從小就熟悉的大象,長壽又具有社交行為,現在可能需要一點幫助。但是棲地的萎縮以及象牙盜獵者對具有大象牙的向選擇性的獵殺,已經引起了嚴重的關切。」

為了提供補救措施,專案小組建議,新的國家大象保育管理局將會是新的大象研究與評估聯盟,開發與應用各種最佳的方法。

印度北部科貝特國家公園內的野生亞洲象。圖片節錄自:世界土地信託/Marie Chambers相本。專責小組同時建議設立新的大象景觀土地保育項目。「這10項土地保育項目,將包含在32項已經存在或計畫中的大象保留區計畫,」專案小組寫道。

雖然沒有新的保留區計畫,但會強化現有的保留區。(現有的)大象保留區內超過40%的土地沒有保護區或是對森林狀況進行管理。

專案小組建議,印度應該成為全球大象保育的領導者,成立國際大象大會,並與亞洲的鄰國合作。

「保護未來大象的關鍵,在於我們在政策以及方案上的看法,」專案小組的報告中寫道,「將大象宣告成為國寶級動物,可以展現牠在我們生態與文化中的象徵地位。」

India Gives Elephants 'National Heritage Animal' Status
NEW DELHI, India, October 22, 2010 (ENS)

India's Environment Ministry has declared the elephant a National Heritage Animal in order to increase protective measures for the country's nearly 29,000 elephants. The government made the declaration in a notice signed Thursday by A.N. Prasad, inspector general of forests and director of Project Elephant.

The notice follows a recommendation for the protective status issued October 13 by the Standing Committee of the National Board for Wildlife.

The ministry's Elephant Task Force recommended the special status for elephants in a report August 31, saying the move will help in protecting Asia's largest mammals.
"Declaring it the National Heritage Animal will give it due place as emblem of ecological sensitivity. It will also mark recognition for its centrality in our plural cultures, traditions and oral lore," the task force wrote in its report.

Announcing the Elephant Task Force report, Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh said that elephants have been "part of our heritage since ages" and they should have the same degree of conservation importance given to them as is given to the tiger.

Calling the elephant by its local name, "Gajah," the report declares, "The Task Force is crystal clear on one point. India can secure the future for Gajah and its forest home."

"An India without elephants is unacceptable. But an India with elephants requires sustainable approaches that work on the ground," the task force wrote.

Sixty percent of elephants in Asia live in India, where 18 states host elephant populations making up an estimated national total of 26,000 in the wild plus about 3,500 in captivity.

Elephants die as a result of train hits, as did seven elephants in West Bengal's Jalpaiguri district in September. Dozens of India's wild elephants have been killed in recent years by trains - some in the same area as this collision.

There are the problems of human-elephant conflict, the diversion of land for mining, the destruction of habitat, and the loss of forest cover.

"It is not immediate extinction as much as attrition of living spaces and the tense conditions of the human-elephant encounter on the ground that require redress," the task force wrote in its report.

"As a long lived and sociable animal familiar to all of us since childhood, elephants may seem to require little help. But the shrinking of habitat and the selective killing off of tuskers in key populations by ivory poachers are cause for grave concern," the Task Force wrote.

To provide redress, the task force recommends that within the new National Elephant Conservation Authority will be a new Consortium of Elephant Research and Estimation that will develop and apply the best methods for enumeration.

The task force also recommended a new land conservation category of Elephant Landscapes. "These, 10 in number will include the existing and proposed 32 Elephant Reserves," the task force wrote.

While no new reserves were proposed, there will be a consolidation of the existing reserves. Over 40 percent of the land within Elephant Reserves does not have Protected Area or government forest status.

India should take the global lead in elephant conservation, with an International Elephant Congress and broader cooperation with Asian neighbors, the task force recommended.

"To secure the future for Gajah, the key is in our perceptions as much as in policies and programmes," wrote the task force in its report. "Declaring it the National Heritage Animal will recognize its dual identity as our symbol of ecology and of culture."

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導

作者

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.