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智利最大風力發電計畫 原民訴訟成功擋下

2012年04月03日
摘譯自 2012 年3月29日ENS智利,聖地牙哥報導;段譽豪編譯;蔡麗伶審校

智利人抗議在奇洛埃島上興建大型風力發電廠。(Elsa Cabrera / 攝影)經過智利南方奇洛埃(Chiloe Island)原住民提起訴訟之後,智利最高法院宣布,將暫停位於該島,智利最大的140百萬瓦(MW)風力電廠計畫。

智利與瑞典合資的公司Ecopower預計將沿著奇洛埃島的馬-布拉瓦(Mar Brava)海岸興建 56 座超過 100 公尺的高塔。這片水域是地球上最大的生物-藍鯨在夏季的覓食場所。

高等法院裁定,由市長Juan Sebastian Montes領導的Los Lagos區域環境委員會,在 2011 年 7 月2日通過Parque Eolico Chiloe風力電廠一案是違法的。

Elsa Cabrera表示,數個智利的社會團體對此案表達反對。他們認為,此案未依智利法律進行環境影響評估,區域環境委員會卻無異議通過開發案,此舉已違背法律。Cabrera 是鯨豚保育中心的執行總監,支持並與當地團體合作,要求Ecopower重新選址,並且應遵守法律要求進行環評。

在此背景之下,智利最高法院依國際勞工組織公約 169 號協定(169 Convention of the International Labour Organization),在23日接受了原住民團體的上訴。

奇洛埃島外的馬布拉瓦海岸。(Elsa Cabrera/攝影)最高法院裁定,通過Parque Eolico Chiloe風力電廠興建案的決定,是「環境委員會的獨斷行為」,因為它沒有與原住民進行適當的溝通。

裁決指出,「與受影響居民進行義務性會談情況,稱不上是適當的溝通。」

裁決並指出,「這樣的行為...違反了完成行政程序的義務,因為沒有清楚的諮詢過程...,使得所做的決議違反法律規定。」

鯨豚保育中心主任Barbara Galletti同時也是國際捕鯨委員會科學委員會的成員。2011年1月的時候,她寄了一封由 50 位聲學與鯨豚專家簽署的信給智利總統 Sebastian Pinera,要求風力電廠重新選址,因為電廠將會對夏天沿著奇洛埃島西北部水域覓食的藍鯨族群造成衝擊。

Galletti說,「我們十分看重最高法院的裁決,並希望這個歷史性的決定能夠複製到其他國家性的能源計畫上,特別是那些在可疑手段下通過的計畫,威脅著我們對自然以及文化遺產的有效保護。」

Chile's Supreme Court Halts Illegal Wind Farm
SANTIAGO, Chile, March 29, 2012 (ENS)

Responding to an appeal by indigenous communities of Chiloe Island in southern Chile, the Chilean Supreme Court has ordered the suspension of a 140 megawatt wind project on the island, the largest project of its kind in the country.

Chilean-Swedish company Ecopower seeks to construct 56 towers of more than 100 meters in height along the Mar Brava coast of Chiloe island. These waters are inhabited in summer by a feeding population of blue whales, the largest creatures on Earth.

The high court determined that the wind farm, Parque Eolico Chiloe, was illegally approved on July 2, 2011 by the Regional Environmental Commission of Los Lagos region, led by the mayor of the region, Juan Sebastian Montes.

Several Chilean civil society organizations expressed their opposition to the irregular performance of the Regional Environmental Commission that unanimously approved the development of the project without conducting the Environmental Impact Assessment required under Chilean law, says Elsa Cabrera. As executive director of the Cetacean Conservation Center, Cabrera works with and supports local groups demanding that Ecopower relocate the project and comply with national legislation that requires an Environmental Impact Assessment.

In this context, the Supreme Court of Chile Friday welcomed the appeal presented by indigenous communities, as required under the 169 Convention of the International Labour Organization.

The the high court ruled that the decision to permit the Parque Eolico Chiloe was an "arbitrary act of the Environmental Commission" since it did not conduct a proper consultation process with the indigenous community.

The ruling states that "voluntary meetings with the community are far from satisfying the features of a proper consultation process to those affected by the project."

The court ruled that "such action ... violates the obligation to substantiate administrative action because it is the result of a unclear process of consultation ... making the decision illegal."

Barbara Galletti is president of the Cetacean Conservation Center, and is also a member of the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission. Last January she delivered a letter signed by more than 50 world experts in acoustics and whale research to Chilean President Sebastian Pinera, requesting relocation of the wind farm because of the impacts it would have on the population of blue whales that feed in summer in the waters along northwestern Chiloe Island.

"We value the Supreme Court ruling," Galletti said, "and hope that this historic determination is replicated to other national energy projects that have been approved by dubious means and that also threaten the effective conservation of our natural and cultural heritage."