保護環境 加州禁一次性塑膠袋 | 環境資訊中心

保護環境 加州禁一次性塑膠袋

2015年02月25日
摘譯自2014年10月2日ENS美國,加州,沙加緬度報導;朱柔嘉編譯;龐中培審校

去年,美國加州州長伯朗(Jerry Brown)簽署了美國第一份禁用一次性購物塑膠袋的法規,這項法案於2015年1月1日生效,適用於全州的雜貨店與藥局。2016年1月1日開始,各便利商店與飲酒專賣店將不得免費提供一次性塑膠袋。

我畫了一公尺平方公尺的沙灘,想看看到底有多少塑膠袋。在這一平方公尺沙灘上,撿起大小塑膠袋53個。

綠色經濟 從「浪費型」社會出逃

塑膠袋導致垃圾增加,還會使資源回收中心的機器分類減緩或故障故障。鳥、烏龜以及海洋哺乳類動物會被塑膠袋纏住或者誤食塑膠袋而死亡。

全世界漂浮垃圾物中有90%都是塑膠。每年加州消費者、州政府和地方政府,使用、清理及處理一次性塑膠袋的花費總加起來,估計達數千萬美元。

塑膠袋禁用法規修訂案,是由包括利昂(Kevin de Leon)、納拉(Ricardo Lara)和帕迪拉(Alex Padilla)在內的民主黨參議員共同發起。

代理參議院長利昂表示:「參議院第270條修訂案對於環境與加州工作者,是雙贏局面。我們正停止一次性塑膠袋所造成的傷害,並且終止塑膠廢棄流迴圈的方法,同時能讓加州的工作持續與成長。當我們更進一步發展綠色經濟,參議院第270條修訂案將會是個典範,因它在地球健康與人類的生計維持達到平衡。」

參議員帕迪拉表示,全州法案的驅動力來自於加州許多已經禁用塑膠袋的城市與郡。整個美國,已經有98個地方政府、超過127座城鎮已經禁用一次性塑膠袋,其中包含美國最大的兩座城市──洛杉磯和舊金山。

「浪費型社會無法永續。」帕迪拉表示:「每數十億個造成社區髒亂與環境傷害的一次性塑膠袋,都會因這新法規而大幅減少。棄用一次性塑膠袋,改用可重複使用的袋子將成常識。伯朗市長的簽署反映出我們對環境保護與減少政府成本的承諾。」

塑膠袋製造商將獲補助轉型

加州政府將提供塑膠袋製造商2百萬美元的補助,以因應廠商更換機械設備與培訓員工,以因應改變。

塑膠袋製造商表示將會訴諸公投,讓選民決定。帕迪拉表示,加州人會拒絕公投,為幫助環境,轉而採納不用塑膠購物袋的生活方式。

參議員帕迪拉表示:「一次性塑膠袋使沙灘、山脈、沙漠、河流、溪水和湖泊髒亂。參議院第270條修訂案處理這問題時,顧及兩全。當我們轉型至重複性使用袋子與更環保的經濟,保護環境同時也是在保護加州工作。」

參議員娜拉表示,此法規對於袋子製造商確實是恩惠。「此法案透過減少塑膠浪費而保護環境,並且提供加州袋子製造商資源,讓他們維持雇用員工與改造製作過程,使塑膠袋符合環保意識的新好準則。對於環境、製造商和工作而言,都是好事。」

美國各州的「減塑」風潮

理所當然,環境保護者都樂見此項法案。

非營利組織「加州人反浪費」的執行總長莫里表示:「此法案將會讓加州每年產生的一次性塑膠購物袋減少量高達13多億,而立刻減少普遍存在的汙染源。加州立法者已經透過執行一次性塑膠袋禁用法案,明白且強烈的表明:製造者從產品的開始到結束都有責任。若產品的社會成本及環境成本太大,加州準備好要將它消滅。」

加州海洋和環境促進協會成員韋弗(Nathan Weaver)表示:「不應該有什麼是我們使用幾分鐘,卻污染環境長達數百年的東西。參議院第270條修訂案會是朝著讓街道與水溝中的一次性塑膠袋消失的重要一步。」

每年,零售商發放超過130億個一次性塑膠帶。根據加州資源回收(CalRecycle)局資料顯示,在加州只有3%的一次性塑膠袋有確實回收。

全美州議會聯合會表示,麻州、新澤西州、羅德島州以及波多黎各,也將決議禁止一次性塑膠袋的法案。

夏威夷已經發佈此禁令將近兩年,但因為4個主要島嶼中,一個島屬於一個郡,且個別批准這項法規,因此禁令只是名義的州禁令。

California Says Goodbye to Plastic Bags
SACRAMENTO, California, October 2, 2014 (ENS)

California Governor Jerry Brown on Tuesday signed the nation’s first statewide ban on single-use plastic shopping bags.
Hawaii has had a de facto statewide ban for nearly two years, but because each of the four major islands is a county, the bag bans were approved county by county.

Senate Bill 270 will phase out single-use plastic bags across the entire state of California.

The measure takes effect on January 1, 2015 in grocery stores and pharmacies. Beginning July 1, 2016, convenience stores and liquor stores will no longer be able to hand out single-use plastic bags.

Plastic bags cause litter, slow sorting and jam machinery at recycling centers. They kill birds, turtles and marine mammals that become entangled or mistake the bags for food. Plastic composes 90 percent of all floating debris worldwide.

The combined cost of single-use plastic bags to California consumers and state and local government for use, clean-up and disposal is estimated to be in the tens of millions of dollars annually.

The plastic bag ban bill was jointly authored by Senators Kevin de Leon of Los Angeles, Ricardo Lara of Huntington Park/Long Beach, and Alex Padilla of Pacoima – all Democrats.

It provides for up to $2 million in competitive grants for bag manufacturers to retool and retrain to meet the new situation.

“SB 270 is a win-win for the environment and for California workers,” said Senate President pro Tempore-elect de Leon. “We are doing away with the scourge of single-use plastic bags and closing the loop on the plastic waste stream, all while maintaining – and growing – California jobs. As we further develop our green economy, SB 270 will be a model for balancing the health of the planet with the preservation of people’s livelihoods.”

Senator Padilla says the drive for statewide legislation comes from the many California cities and counties that already have bag bans. Ninety-eight local governments throughout the state have already adopted plastic bag ban laws covering more than 127 cities and counties, including the state’s two largest cities – Los Angeles and San Francisco.

“A throw-away society is not sustainable,” said Padilla. “This new law will greatly reduce the flow of billions of single-use plastic bags that litter our communities and harm our environment each year. Moving from single-use plastic bags to reusable bags is common sense. Governor Brown’s signature reflects our commitment to protect the environment and reduce government costs.”

Plastic bag manufacturers said they would go to the voters over the issue, asking for a referendum.

Padilla said Californians would reject a referendum effort and adapt to living without plastic shopping bags to help the environment.

“Single-use plastic bags litter our beaches, our mountains, deserts, rivers, streams and lakes. SB 270 addresses this problem while striking the right balance. It protects the environment as well as California jobs as we transition to reusable bags and a greener economy,” said Senator Alex Padilla.

Senator Lara said the measure really is a boon to bag manufacturers.

“This bill protects our environment by reducing plastic in our waste stream, and provides resources for California bag manufacturers to retrain their workers and re-engineer their operations to make plastic bags meet new, environmentally sound criteria. It’s a win for the environment, a win for manufacturers and a win for jobs,” said Lara.

Environmentalists, naturally, were pleased.

Mark Murray, executive director, Californians Against Waste, said, “This measure will result in the elimination of the more than 13 billion single-use plastic shopping bags generated in California annually, immediately reducing a pervasive source of pollution. California policy makers have made a clear and strong statement in enacting the bag ban: Producers are responsible for the end of life of their products. If a product is too costly to society and the environment, California is prepared to move to eliminate it.”

“Nothing we use for a few minutes should pollute our environment for hundreds of years,” said Nathan Weaver, Oceans Advocate with Environment California. “SB 270 is an important step forward to keep single-use plastic bags off our streets and out of our waterways.

Each year, more than 13 billion single-use plastic bags are given out by retailers. According to CalRecycle, a state government agency, just three percent are actually recycled in California.

The National Conference of State Legislatures shows that Massachusetts, New Jersey, Rhode Island and Puerto Rico also have bills going through the legislative process that would ban single-use plastic bags.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

※ 本文為教育部科學人文跨科際人才培育計畫(簡稱SHS計畫)所屬南區區域推動中心,舉辦「環境新聞編譯工作坊」之成果展現,特別感謝《科學人》編輯群協助審校。