CITES大會落幕 通過51項提案 開創保育新局面 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

CITES大會落幕 通過51項提案 開創保育新局面

2016年10月08日
摘譯自2016年10月5日ENS南非,約翰尼斯堡報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

為期兩週的第17屆(CoP17)華盛頓公約會議於4日落幕,152個締約國通過許多重要的野生物貿易決策,加強打擊走私、提高物種保護等級、實施減少走私需求策略以及與偏遠社群更密切合作,讓非洲象、穿山甲、紅木等物種獲得更高等級的保護。

COP17是CITES有史以來邊會數量最多、全球媒體關注程度也最高的一場大會。圖片來源:GovernmentZA(CC BY-ND 2.0)

CoP17是有史以來規模最大的一次華盛頓公約會議(CITES),共152國參與,64國提出62項物種保護升級提案。其中51項提案通過、五項被拒、六項被撤銷。超過3500人參與會議,邊會數量最多、全球媒體關注程度也最高。

CoP17最重要的協議成果,便是就諸多物種的永續貿易改進措施達成共識,包括皇后海螺、蘇眉魚、鯊魚、蛇、非洲野狗和古夷蘇木、紅木、非洲櫻桃和沉香等多樹種。

大會也確認了角山斑馬、數種鱷魚和美洲森林野牛等物種的保育成功案例,這些物種由於保育狀況改善,管制等級從CITES附錄一降至附錄二,並將非洲灰鸚鵡、直布羅陀獼猴,布萊恩氏魚鉤仙人掌、象、穿山甲和賽加羚羊等瀕危野生物保護等級提高。

有關非洲灰鸚鵡、非洲獅、獵豹、盔犀鳥、穿山甲、犀牛和加州灣石首魚,CoP17也協議採行針對性的查緝措施。此外,還有許多新物種首次加入CITES,受到貿易管制。這些決策影響數量可觀的哺乳動物、海洋動物、爬蟲類、兩棲類和木本植物物種,包括350種紅木、魔鬼魟、鐮狀真鯊和長尾鯊。

CoP17的成果展現諸多創舉,包括:

  • 第一個因應貪污和野生物犯罪的決議
  • 首次針對網路犯罪和野生物犯罪做出決定
  • 第一個減少走私需求的決議
  • 第一個影響盔犀鳥和蛇的決議
  • 首次針對非法捕撈和貿易加州灣石首魚和加州灣鼠海豚做出決定
  • 首次針對青年參與CITES做出決議
  • 首次針對偏遠社群參與做出決定,讓野生物經營管理事務有更多在地居民的意見

其他成果包括:

  • 駁回象牙貿易決策機制(DMM)
  • 協議在長象牙盜獵與走私的國家,封鎖其國內象牙市場
  • 駁回更改非洲南部象群的保護等級
  • 以更嚴格的監控和管制措施,將狩獵戰利品納入貿易規範,建議對保育野生物的人們提供保育獎勵和誘因
  • 通過歐洲鰻研究計畫以改進其貿易管制措施,並擴及研究所有安圭拉屬(Anguilla)的鰻魚
  • 調查國際貿易對海龜保育狀況的影響
  • 導入人工繁殖合規流程,以確認聲稱人工繁殖個體的真偽
  • 象牙貿易來源、轉運和終點締約國以國家象牙行動計畫為保育工具,建立對抗走私和確保合規性的能力
  • 研究獅骨和其他身體部位及衍伸產品的合法與非法貿易
  • 檢討所有附錄一物種,確認改善保育狀況的對策
  • 改善野生物貿易流程,確保永續、合法和可追蹤
  • 協議改善CITES物種的可追蹤性和可辨性

CITES的所有附錄變更、決議和決定文件都將在CoP結束90天後生效。

COP17做出第一個因應貪污和野生物犯罪的決議。圖片來源:GovernmentZA(CC BY-ND 2.0)

World Wildlife Conference a ‘Game Changer’
JOHANNESBURG, South Africa, October 5, 2016 (ENS)

Two weeks of intense negotiations closed here Tuesday as 152 governments adopted groundbreaking decisions regulating legal, sustainable and traceable trade in wildlife. They protected African elephants, pangolins and rosewoods, among many other species.

As Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, CITES, they strengthened actions to combat illicit wildlife trafficking, give higher protection to entire groups of species, implement targeted demand reduction strategies for illegally traded wildlife, and engage more closely with rural communities.

The 17th meeting of the Conference of the Parties, #CoP17, was the largest meeting of its kind ever held, with 152 governments taking decisions on 62 species-listing proposals submitted by 64 countries.

In sum, 51 proposals were accepted, five were rejected and six were withdrawn.

Over 3,500 people attended the meeting, which also recorded the highest number of side events and attracted media interest from every region of the world.

The conference was marked by agreement on measures to improve sustainable trade in the queen conch, humphead wrasse, sharks, snakes and the African wild dog as well as a large range of timber species, such as bubinga and rosewoods, and the African cherry and agarwood.

Parties recognized several conservation success stories, including that of the Cape mountain zebra, several species of crocodiles and the wood bison, which were all by consensus downlisted from Appendix I under CITES to Appendix II in recognition of their improved conservation status.

There was fresh impetus to safeguard threatened wild animals and plants with added protection for the African grey parrot, Barbary Macaque, Blaine’s fishhook cactus, elephant, pangolin and saiga antelope.

Targeted enforcement measures were agreed to combat illegal trade for specific species including: the African grey parrot, African lion, cheetah, helmeted hornbill, pangolin, rhino and totoaba.

Many new animals and plants were also added to CITES Appendices for the first time, and now will come under CITES trade controls.

These decisions affect a large number of mammals, marine and timber species as well as many reptiles and amphibians and include more than 350 species of rosewood, devil rays, silky sharks and thresher sharks.

#CoP17 saw a number of firsts, including, the first ever:

•  Resolution on corruption and wildlife crime;

•  Decisions on cybercrime and wildlife crime;

•  Resolution on strategies to reduce the demand for illegally traded wildlife,

•  Resolutions affecting the helmeted hornbill and snakes;

•  Decisions on targeting the illegal fishing of and trade in totoaba, and the related illegal killing of the vaquita;

•  Resolution and decisions on youth engagement in CITES; and

•  Decisions on rural communities engagement, providing a greater voice for local people in managing wildlife.

 

Other outcomes include:

•  The rejection of a Decision-Making Mechanism (DMM) for a future trade in ivory;

•  An agreement to close domestic markets in ivory where they contribute to poaching or illegal trade;

•  The rejection of all proposals to change the protection of Southern African elephant populations;

•  Stricter monitoring and regulation of hunting trophies to bring them under trade control measures, including recommending conservation benefits and incentives for people to conserve wildlife;

•  A decision to conduct a study to improve knowledge on regulation of trade in the European eel, and to look more broadly at all Anguilla eels;

•  An agreement to undertake specific work on marine turtles to understand the impact of international trade on their conservation status;

•  The introduction of a captive breeding compliance process to check the authenticity of specimens described as captive bred;

•  Acceptance of the National Ivory Action Plans as a tool for those Parties mostly affected by illegal trade in ivory, including source, transit and destination countries, to build their capacity in addressing illegal trade and ensuring compliance with the commitments they make under the plans;

•  A decision to undertake studies in legal and illegal trade in lion bones and other parts and derivatives;

•  A request to review all species listed on Appendix I to identify what measures are needed to improve their conservation status;

•  Improvements to processes to ensure that wildlife trade is sustainable, legal and traceable; and

•  Agreements on process to improve traceability and identification of CITES-listed species.

Changes to the CITES Appendices, Resolutions and Decisions enter into force 90 days after the CoP.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.