美環保署否決加州汽車溫室氣體排放法律 | 環境資訊中心

美環保署否決加州汽車溫室氣體排放法律

2007年12月24日
摘譯自2007年12月19日ENS美國,華盛頓特區報導;吳萃慧編譯;審校

加州塞車景像;圖片來源:ENS美國環境保護署(EPA)否決加州對機動車輛設定溫室氣體排放限制的要求,而這是美國環保署在「清淨空氣法案」(Clean Air Act)規範下第一次否決這種減少污染的要求,加州官員也開始準備他們對此的訴訟案。

加州政府是以「清淨空氣法案」(Clean Air Act)所賦予執行的職責,尋求降低聯邦的排放標準,使加州可以採用更嚴格的標準。

加州法律要求其轄區要在2016年達到減少30%機動車輛溫室氣體排放量的標準,而在同期間美國聯邦政府卻完全不規範溫室氣體排放。

加州檢察總長小布朗(Edmund G. Brown Jr.)12月19日表示,此次環保署的否決將促使加州對環保署興訟。他指出:「布希政府否決這項要求完全沒有法律依據。史瓦辛格州長和我正準備要在最快時間內提出告訴。」

其他16個州也已經或正準備採用加州的排放標準。這16個州包括亞利桑納州、科羅拉多州、康乃迪克州、佛羅里達州、緬因州、馬里蘭州、麻州、紐澤西州、新墨西哥州、紐約州、奧勒岡州、賓州、羅德島、猶它州、佛蒙特州、華盛頓州。同意加州提議的減量標準表示這些州的標準也會同時生效。

環保署行政主管強森(Stephen Johnson)表示,否決加州的要求,是因為布希總統19日所簽署立法的能源法案是一個「全國性解決方案」,比一個「令人迷惑且片面的州立法規更好,更能減少美國從汽機車產生的氣候足跡」。

雖然這個「能源獨立與安全法案」確實指示要在2020年達到每加侖35英哩(約合每公升9.2公里)的燃料經濟標準,但是它並沒有規範溫室氣體排放。

兩個政策的不同處在於「加州清淨汽車計畫(California Clean Cars Program)」會以2009年為標準年,比聯邦能源法案所要求達成每加侖35英哩標準的年份早了10年。

EPA Rejects California's Greenhouse Gas Tailpipe Law
WASHINGTON, DC, December 19, 2007 (ENS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA, has denied California's request to impose greenhouse gas emissions limits on motor vehicles. It is the first time the EPA has ever denied a waiver request under the Clean Air Act, and California officials are already preparing their lawsuit.

California sought a waiver of federal standards as the state is entitled to do under the Clean Air Act so that the state could adopt stricter standards.

California's law requires a 30 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions standards from motor vehicles by 2016, while the federal government does not regulate greenhouse gas emissions at all.

The denial will trigger a lawsuit against the EPA, said California Attorney General Edmund G. Brown Jr. today.

"There is absolutely no legal justification for the Bush administration to deny this request," he said. "Governor [Arnold] Schwarzenegger and I are preparing to sue at the earliest possible moment."

Sixteen other states - Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, Washington - have adopted, or are in the process of adopting California's emissions standards. Approval of California's waiver would have meant that other states get approval automatically.

In rejecting California's request, EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson said the energy bill signed into law by President Bush today is "a national solution" that is better than a "confusing patchwork of state rules - to reduce America's climate footprint from vehicles."

But the Energy Independence and Security Act does not regulate greenhouse gas emissions, although it does mandate a fuel economy standard of 35 miles per gallon in the year 2020.

The two policies differ in that the California Clean Cars Program would begin with model year 2009, a decade before the 35 miles per gallon standard in the energy bill kicks in.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS