華盛頓州議會通過電子廢棄物回收法案 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

華盛頓州議會通過電子廢棄物回收法案

2006年03月13日
ENS美國,華盛頓州,奧林匹亞報導;劉文彥編譯;莫聞審校

美國華盛頓州參眾兩院6日以極大的比數差距,表決通過電子廢棄物回收法案,堪稱為美國同性質法案中最為全面性的一宗。該項法案旨在建立一個讓民眾能免費且簡便使用的電腦及電視回收機制。華盛頓州長格瑞革(Christine Gregoire)將有20天的時間來決定簽署或否決這項法案。

該項法規要求製造廠商提撥經費用來收集、搬運並回收該州消費者、中小企業、學校、地方政府及慈善公益團體所購買的電腦、螢幕及電視等商品。

因此,消費者在這項回收方案中將無須負擔任何稅金或服務費用。這項稱之為「製造者責任」的方案,在歐洲及亞洲多個國家已獲採用,它能刺激製造商轉而生產低毒性及低回收成本的產品以節省財務支出。因此,製造商有兩個方案可選擇:開發自身的回收機制,或是參與第三方「半官方」機構所執行的集中式「標準計劃」。

華盛頓州是美國第四個通過電子廢棄物處理法案的州,不過該州法案遠較其他州更周延。目前已通過製造者責任法案的有緬因及馬里蘭州,另外加州通過的法案則規定民眾在購買商品時額外付出一筆費用,該費用納入回收基金統籌使用。

「全國電腦回收運動」主席史密斯(Ted Smith)指出,「此為現今美國最全面的回收管理法案,它甚至比緬因州的方案更強力,因為它規範納入了更多項產品,同時也關閉了出口電子廢棄物到印度、中國等開發中國家的方便之門,此外它也不允許受刑人進行電子廢棄物的拆解工作。」該法案詳情可於網站瀏覽:e-takeback.org/press_open/info.htm

Washington State Hands E-Waste Costs to Manufacturers
OLYMPIA, Washington, March 8, 2006 (ENS)

By wide margins in both houses, the Washington State legislature Monday passed the most comprehensive electronic waste recycling bill in the country, establishing a program to provide residents with a free and simple way to recycle computers and TVs. Governor Christine Gregoire will now have 20 days to sign or veto the bill.

The legislation requires manufacturers to finance the collection, transportation and recycling of computers, monitors, and TVs from consumers, small business, schools, small governments, and charities in the state.

As a result, the recycling program will be run without additional taxes or fees for consumers. This approach of "producer responsibility," used by many countries in Europe and Asia, provides a financial incentive for manufacturers to make products that will cost less to recycle by being less toxic and easier to recycle. Manufacturers may either create their own recycling programs, or participate in a centralized "standard plan" run by a quasi-governmental, third party agency.

Washington is the fourth state to pass an electronics recycling bill in the U.S., but the new Washington bill is more comprehensive than the others. Both Maine and Maryland passed producer responsibility bills, and California passed a bill requiring consumers to pay fees on purchases to go into a recycling fund.

"This is now the most extensive product stewardship bill in the US," said Ted Smith, chair of the national Computer TakeBack Campaign. "This is even stronger than the program in Maine, because it covers more products, it closes the door on the exporting of e-waste to countries like China and India, and it won't allow the use of prison labor for e-waste disassembly." For bill summary go to: e-takeback.org/press_open/info.htm