歐盟通過數項永續性生質燃料計畫 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

歐盟通過數項永續性生質燃料計畫

2011年07月28日
摘譯自2011年7月22日ENS比利時,布魯塞爾報導;段譽豪編譯;蔡麗伶審校

印尼占碑省,位在完整熱帶雨林邊界的油棕櫚園。圖片來自:國際林業研究中心,CIFOR 。歐盟執委會批准了七個志願性計劃,以確保雨林不會因為種植生質燃料作物而被摧毀。

歐盟的目標是在2020年以前,運輸部門至少有一成使用可再生能源。生質燃料若要用來達成這個目標,就必須滿足一套可永續發展的要求,以得到政府的支持或者被強制列入國際可再生能源目標。

能源執委 Günther Oettinger 說,「我們必須要確保生質燃料整個生產與供應鍊都是永續性的。所以我們設定了全球最高的永續性標準。」

生質燃料的永續性將由會員國或是透過歐盟執行委員會核准的自願性計畫確認。

實際上,這意味著種植在原本是雨林或是具獨特生態系的天然草原上的生質能作物不符合永續性的標準。

通過核准的生質燃料不能來自具高生物多樣性地區,像是自然保護區,也不能來自碳儲存量高的地區,像是森林或是泥碳地。

此外,整個生產鍊的溫室氣體排放量與石化燃料相比,至少要低35%。而這門檻將隨著時間增加,Oettinger說。

企業可以選擇透過國家系統或是加入委員會認可的自願性計畫,來證明其是否符合永續性發展的要求。

這項計劃將驗證生質燃料是在何處以及如何生產。如果滿足了自願性計畫的規定,則該計畫可以對產品出具證明。

委員會這些計畫的審核人員將相關標準準備好,如同國際標準化組織(ISO)的認證並且被國際認證論壇(IAF)會員所認可。

經過委員會詳細評估並作出各種改進之後,以下的計畫被認可:

  • 國際可持續性和碳鑒定證書(ISCC)是一個全球性倡議,包含從供應鍊開始所有生物量與生質燃料的利益相關者與相關公司。研究與工業組織,以及像是世界自然基金會(WWF)的非營利組織都與此有關。這項計畫是由德國聯邦食品、農業與消費者保護部,透過可再生資源局所推動。
  • Bonsucro EU 是一個以巴西甘蔗產品為主的蔗糖酒精標準。這一圓桌會議倡議包含許多供應鍊中相關的不同企業,WWF也是會員之一。
  • 責任大豆圓桌會 (RTRS EU RED),這是一個以大豆生產生質柴油的標準,並且以巴西與阿根廷為主要的產地。這個圓桌會包含了供應鍊中不同的企業,這個計畫成員包含了非政府環保組織國際保育協會(CI)、美國自然保育協會(The Nature Conservancy)以及WWF。
  • 永續生質燃料圓桌會 (RSB EU RED),這項計畫囊括所有種類的生質燃料,並且擴及全球。這也是個包含供應鍊中不同公司的圓桌會,成員包括了國際保育協會、國際自然保育聯盟(IUCN)、聯合國基金會(UNF)、國際溼地協會(WI)以及WWF。
  • 永續生物量生質燃油自願計畫(2BSvs),2BSvs 是法國的倡議,由法國國際檢驗局(Bureau Veritas)所領導的一個包含不同公司的財團,包含各種生質燃料並且範圍擴及全球。
  • Abengoa RED  生物能永續發展認證(RBSA),這是由Abengoa發展的一個工業倡議,是一個總公司設在西班牙的太陽能與生質能公司。RBSA包含全球性的乙醇計畫,特點是計算溫室氣體時強制規定使用實際值,不得使用預設值,以載供應鍊中推動更好的溫室氣體排放表現。
  • 巴西生質酒精綠能認證計畫,這個由英國綠能科技(Greenergy)所開發的認證標準是一個工業倡議,英國綠能科技提供五分之一的英國道路用燃料,包含汽柴油以及生質燃油。這項標準適用於巴西生產甘蔗酒精。綠能科技將其生質作物的產地標示在互動式地圖「生物碳標籤(BioCarbon Tracker)」。藉由檢視其供應商的碳儲量,綠能科技可以評估風險並且擬定企業行動的優先順序。
Sustainable Biofuel Schemes Win EU Approval
BRUSSELS, Belgium, July 22, 2011 (ENS)

The European Commission has approved seven voluntary schemes for ensuring that rainforests are not destroyed to grow biofuel crops.

The EU aims to use at least 10 percent renewable energy in transport by 2020. Where biofuels are used to achieve this target, they must meet a set of sustainability requirements in order to receive government support or count towards mandatory national renewable energy targets.

Commissioner for Energy Günther Oettinger said, "We need to make sure that the entire biofuels' production and supply chain is sustainable. This is why we have set the highest sustainability standards in the world."

The sustainability of biofuels will be checked either by the Member States or through voluntary schemes which have been approved by the European Commission.

In practice this means that biofuels made of crops grown on land that once was rainforest or natural grassland with a unique ecosystem cannot be considered as sustainable.

Approved biofuels cannot be produced from areas which have a high biodiversity value, such as protected areas, or from areas that store a high amount of carbon, such as forests or peatlands.

In addition, the greenhouse gas emissions over the whole production chain need to be at least 35 percent lower compared to fossil fuels. That threshold will increase over time, Oettinger said.

Companies can choose whether to demonstrate compliance with these sustainability requirements through national systems or by joining a voluntary scheme which is recognized by the Commission.

Such a scheme verifies where and how the biofuels are produced. If the rules of the voluntary scheme have been met, the scheme can issue a certificate for that product.

The Commission requires that the auditors of these schemes have relevant standards in place as certified by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and are accredited by a member of the International Accreditation Forum.

After a detailed assessment made by the Commission and various improvements, the following schemes were recognized:

  • International Sustainability and Carbon Certification (ISCC) is a global initiative covering all types of biomass and biofuels in a multi-stakeholder approach with companies from the entire supply chain. Research and industry organizations, and nongovernmental organizations, such as the global conservation organization WWF, are involved. Development of the scheme is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection through the Agency for Renewable Resources.
  • Bonsucro EU is a standard for sugarcane-based ethanol with a focus on Brazilian sugarcane production. This roundtable initiative has a large number of companies from the different parts of the supply chain involved and WWF is also a member.
  • Roundtable for Responsible Soy - RTRS EU RED is a standard for soy-based diesel with a strong focus on Argentinean and Brazilian soy production. A roundtable initiative with companies from the different parts of the supply chain, this scheme includes environmental NGOs Conservation International, The Nature Conservancy and WWF.
  • Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels - RSB EU RED covers all types of biofuels and has a global scope. Also a roundtable initiative with many companies from the different parts of the supply chain NGO members include: Conservation International, International Union for Conservation of Nature, United Nations Foundation, Wetlands International and WWF.
  • Biomass Biofuels Sustainability voluntary scheme (2BSvs) -2BSvs is a French initiative, developed by a consortium of different companies led by Bureau Veritas, which covers all types of biofuels and has a global scope.
  • Abengoa RED Bioenergy Sustainability Assurance - RBSA is an industry initiative, developed by Abengoa, a solar and biofuels corporation based in Spain. RBSA covers ethanol and has a global scope. It is characterised by a mandatory requirement to calculate actual greenhouse gas values and does not allow the use of default values, with a view to drive better greenhouse gas performance in the supply chain.
  • Greenergy Brazilian Bioethanol verification program - This standard is an industry initiative, developed by Greenergy, a UK corporation that supplies one-fifth of all the road fuel sold in Britain - petrol, diesel and biofuel. The standard is applied to sugarcane based ethanol produced in Brazil. Greenergy has mapped the areas that produce its biofuel crops on the BioCarbon Tracker interactive web map. By looking at its suppliers in the context of carbon reserves, Greenenergy can evaluate risk and prioritize corporate actions.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導

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