把森林種回去 亞、美、非3大洲接下「波昂挑戰」 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

把森林種回去 亞、美、非3大洲接下「波昂挑戰」

2015年03月27日
摘譯自2015年3月23日ENS德國,波昂報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

21日,在第二屆國際「波昂挑戰」(Bonn Challenge)森林重建研討會上,由拉丁美洲、東南亞和非洲各國聯手,宣布全新的森林地景重建計畫。

波昂挑戰的新目標,是在2020年前重建全球1億5千萬公頃劣化與被砍伐的森林,截至目前為止已經完成6千190萬公頃。

森林。(來源:Sara y Tzunki (Cecilia e Francesco) )

劣化森林重建 達標近4成

研討會召集了中國、哥斯大黎加、薩爾瓦多、衣索匹亞、瓜地馬拉、印尼、賴比瑞亞、南韓、瑞士和美國的政府官員和代表;主要捐款國,如德國和挪威;以及企業領導人和保育組織。

「全世界逐漸意識到,森林重建有助解決全球的重要問題,包括氣候變遷、生物多樣性、糧食安全和經濟成長。波昂挑戰絕不只是種樹而已,更是在解決當代最迫切的生存問題。」IUCN總幹事Inger Andersen說。

波昂挑戰始於2011年德國和世界自然保育聯盟(IUCN)合辦的活動,隨後受到2014年氣候峰會的認可,紐約森林宣言更訂下2030年重建2億公頃森林的目標

IUCN指出,若達到1億5千萬公頃的目標,每年可帶給地方和國家經濟超過850億美元的收益,和價值60億美元的收成增加,更可減少二氧化碳排放11%至17%。

沙漠到此為止 非洲提「大綠牆」計畫

研討會上,薩爾瓦多提出新的中美洲合作重建森林計畫。非洲衣索比亞和賴比瑞亞宣布「大綠牆計畫」(Great Green Wall Initiative)的新行動,透過重建森林阻止撒哈拉沙漠擴張。東南亞也宣布加強政府和企業之間的森林重建合作。

根據新氣候經濟組織的分析,如果提高波昂挑戰的目標至2030年3億5千萬公頃並達成目標,每年可從水資源保護、作物收成和森林產品以及碳封存增加獲得1千7百億美元收益。

新氣候經濟組織是全球氣候經濟委員會的重要計畫,提供獨立和具權威性證據,證明經濟成長和緩減氣候變遷風險之間的相關性。

經費挹注 國家、私人組織同心重建森林

除了國家和組織的重建承諾外,主要捐款者也宣布將增加全球重建經費。

「現在光是減少碳排放已經不夠。我們必須主動從大氣中移除二氧化碳。森林重建是目前最有效的碳捕捉方法。去年的新氣候經濟報告顯示,保育和強化森林是可行的,而且能和經濟成長一起達成。」挪威氣候與環境部長Tine Sundtoft說。

來自私人組織的資助也逐漸增加。

「重建數百萬公頃的劣化土地是當代最重要的想法。不意外地,各大洲的政治和財務能量都在成長。」世界資源研究所總裁兼執行長Andrew Steer說。

Global Forest Restoration Goal Grows
BONN, Germany, March 23, 2015 (ENS)

New forest restoration initiatives were announced by Latin America, Southeast Asia and Africa at the second international Bonn Challenge conference on forest landscape restoration taking place in Germany on the weekend.

With these announcements, a total of 61.9 million hectares have been contributed to the Bonn Challenge – a global movement to restore 150 million hectares of degraded and deforested land by 2020.

The conference brought together environment ministers and government representatives from China, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Indonesia, Liberia, Republic of Korea, Sweden and the United States, along with representatives from key donor countries, such as Germany and Norway, business leaders and nature conservation organizations.

To mark the International Day of Forests, proclaimed by the United Nations on March 21, the Bonn Challenge participants planted a maple tree together as a symbol of their joint efforts.

The Bonn Challenge was launched in 2011 at an event co-hosted by Germany and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, IUCN. It was endorsed at the 2014 Climate Summit and supplemented by the New York Declaration on Forests with a goal to restore an additional 200 million hectares by 2030.

According to IUCN, achieving the 150 million hectare challenge could bring more than US$85 billion per year to local and national economies and US$6 billion in additional crop yields.

Achievement of the goal could reduce the current CO2 emissions gap by 11 to 17 percent.

El Salvador revealed its plans to launch a Central American partnership for restoration.

In Africa, Ethiopia and Liberia announced further action on the Great Green Wall Initiative, which aims to curb the spread of the Sahara by restoring forests.

In Southeast Asia new goals to extend cooperation between governments and businesses on forest restoration were announced.

“The world is recognizing that forest landscape restoration offers a critical contribution to addressing some of our global challenges, such as climate change, biodiversity, food security and economic growth,” said Inger Andersen, Director General of IUCN.

“The Bonn Challenge is about much more than simply planting trees. It’s about addressing the most pressing issues of our generation, and of future generations,” said Andersen.

An analysis by the New Climate Economy found that achieving the expanded Bonn Challenge goal of 350 million hectares by 2030 could generate USD170 billion per year in net benefits from watershed protection, improved crop yields and forest products, alongside carbon sequestration.

The New Climate Economy is the flagship project of the Global Commission on the Economy and Climate. It provides independent and authoritative evidence on the relationship between actions which can strengthen economic performance and those which reduce the risk of dangerous climate change.

In addition to restoration commitments from countries and organisations, key donors noted today that they would increase their support for global restoration

“We are now at the point where just reducing emissions will not be enough,” says Tine Sundtoft, Norway’s Minister of Climate and Environment. “We must actively remove carbon out of the atmosphere. Forest restoration is the most cost-effective carbon capture option we have. The New Climate Economy Report from last year showed us that conserving and enhancing the forest can be done. And it can be done while also achieving economic growth.”

Support for restoration is also increasingly coming from private sector sources.

“Restoring millions of hectares of degraded land is one of the great ideas of our times,” says Dr. Andrew Steer, President & CEO of the World Resources Institute. “No wonder, then, that political and financial momentum is building across every continent.”

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS