川普撤銷歐巴馬車輛排放標準 北美車廠發起自主管理 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

川普撤銷歐巴馬車輛排放標準 北美車廠發起自主管理

2019年07月31日
環境資訊中心外電;姜唯 翻譯;林大利 審校;稿源:ENS

川普政府打算撤銷歐巴馬時代設立的聯邦車輛減排政策-2020至2060車型年,車輛排放不可再增加。但四大汽車製造商和加州政府已就達成自主減排共識,包括汽油、柴油汽車和輕型卡車將繼續遵循現行歐巴馬政府時代設立的淨化速度標準直至2026,鼓勵創新以加速過渡電動汽車,並提供產業投資和創造就業機會所需的確定性。


加州的交通狀況。 haymarketrebel攝(CC0 1.0)

同意該規範的汽車製造商包括福特、本田、北美寶馬和美國福斯。自願加入規範的汽車公司在美國只能銷售符合這些標準的汽車。

「沒有什麼問題比氣候變遷更迫切,氣候變遷是危及我們生命和生計的全球性威脅。加州等多個州政府和合作汽車製造商正在引領能讓空氣更乾淨、安全的智慧政策」加州州長紐森(Gavin Newsom)說,「現在我呼籲其他汽車業加入,讓川普政府採納這種務實的折衷辦法,而不是一味開政策倒車。這對我們的經濟、人民和地球都是正確的作法。」

「這項合作協議是實現加州和汽車工業目標的可行、可接受途徑,」加州空氣資源委員會主席尼科爾斯(Mary Nichols)說,「如果白宮不同意,我們將繼續遵循現行標準,但與個別汽車製造商合作實施這些原則。同時,如果目前的聯邦汽車標準定案,我們仍將繼續執行我們的規範,並對聯邦法規提出法律上的挑戰。」

加州州長紐森辦公室聲明指出,川普此舉威脅數百萬美國人的空氣品質和健康狀況,將增加消費者的成本,並可能進一步阻礙美國因應氣候變遷的努力。

多個州長、市長、汽車公司、勞工、消費者團體、公共衛生組織和環保組織亦群起反彈。

本月稍早,24名州長跨黨派組成聯盟,代表了超過一半的美國人口,共同呼籲建立更積極的國家乾淨車輛標準。

州長們發表「國家乾淨車輛承諾」聲明,呼籲依照常識,保護國家在談判桌上地位,並建立強而有力的國家標準。

「我們必須合作確保加州和全國能有一個強而有力、以科學為基礎的國家標準,這個標準要逐年提高,為汽車製造商和消費者提供確定性,減少溫室氣體排放,並保護公眾健康。」

該聲明不僅有13個遵循加州車輛標準的州簽署,其他10個由共和黨和民主黨州長領導的州也加入。這個跨黨派聯盟共占美國經濟57%,占美國年度汽車銷售量的一半以上。

加州空氣資源委員會與加拿大今年6月剛簽署合作備忘錄,承諾兩國政府合作制定法規,以減少自小客車和輕型貨車的排放,目前加拿大、加州和美國13個州都採納加州排放標準。

川普撤銷排放規範可能排放數十億噸溫室氣體、數百萬噸顆粒物質和臭氧污染物至大氣中。根據美國環境保護署估計,到2025年,全國撤銷排放規範帶來的健康相關成本可高達120億美元。

上個月,全球17家汽車製造商呼籲白宮和加州共同制定單一的國家標準,避免汽車市場的不確定性、汽車業工作機會受到威脅。

Automakers Reject Trump Rollback of Clean Car Standards
SACRAMENTO, California, July 26, 2019 (ENS)

As the Trump administration prepares to roll back emission standards for light-duty cars and trucks, a consortium of four automakers and the state of California have agreed on a voluntary framework to reduce emissions as an alternative path forward for clean vehicle standards nationwide.

Automakers who agreed to the framework are Ford, Honda, BMW of North America and Volkswagen Group of America.

The framework supports continued annual reductions of vehicle greenhouse gas emissions through the 2026 model year, encourages innovation to accelerate the transition to electric vehicles, and provides industry the certainty needed to make investments and create jobs.

This commitment means that the auto companies party to the voluntary agreement will only sell cars in the United States that meet these standards.

“Few issues are more pressing than climate change, a global threat that endangers our lives and livelihoods. California, a coalition of states, and these automakers are leading the way on smart policies that make the air cleaner and safer for us all,” said California Governor Gavin Newsom.

“I now call on the rest of the auto industry to join us, and for the Trump administration to adopt this pragmatic compromise instead of pursuing its regressive rule change,” Newsome said. “It’s the right thing for our economy, our people and our planet.”

Under the framework, gasoline and diesel cars and light trucks will get cleaner through 2026 at about the same rate as they would under the current program, adopted under the Obama administration.

“This agreement represents a feasible and acceptable path to accomplishing the goals of California and the automobile industry,” said California Air Resources Board Chair Mary Nichols.

“If the White House does not agree, we will move forward with our current standards but work with individual carmakers to implement these principles,” said Nichols. “At the same time, if the current federal vehicle standards proposal is finalized, we will continue to enforce our regulations and pursue legal challenges to the federal rule.”

The agreement comes as the Trump administration is preparing to roll back federal vehicle emission standards, freezing them at the 2020 level through the 2026 model year. This move threatens air quality and health for millions of Americans, would increase costs to consumers, and promises to further set back U.S. efforts to combat climate change, Governor Newsom’s office said in a statement.

The rollback has faced growing opposition from a broad array of governors and mayors, auto companies, labor, consumer groups, public health organizations, and environmental groups.

Earlier this month, a bipartisan coalition of 24 governors representing more than half the U.S. population came together in calling for a stronger, national clean car standard.

In their statement, entitled “The Nation’s Clean Car Promise,” the governors called for a commonsense approach that protects the role of states at the negotiating table and establishes a strong, national standard.

“We must unite to ensure a strong, science-based national standard, in California and across the country, that increases year-over-year, provides certainty for automakers and consumers, reduces greenhouse gases, and protects public health,” the 24 governors said.

The statement is signed not just by the 13 states that follow California’s clean car standards, but by 10 additional states led by both Republican and Democratic governors. Together, this bipartisan coalition represents 57 percent of the U.S. economy and more than half of U.S. annual auto sales.

In June, the California Air Resources Board signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Canada committing both governments to work together on developing their respective regulations to cut emissions from light-duty vehicles, such as those currently in effect in Canada, California and the 13 U.S. states that have adopted California’s standards.

Trump’s proposed rollback threatens to pump billions of tons of climate-altering greenhouse gases, as well as millions of tons of particulate matter and ozone-causing pollutants, into the atmosphere. By the U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s own estimates, health-related costs from the rollback could be as much as $12 billion nationally by 2025.

In a letter last month, 17 worldwide automakers appealed to the White House and California to work together on a single national standard, warning of uncertainty for the auto market and noting that auto industry jobs are at stake.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

林大利

於特有生物研究保育中心服務,小鳥和棲地是主要的研究對象。是龜毛的讀者,認為龜毛是探索世界的美德。