生物多樣性納入聯合國千禧年發展目標 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

生物多樣性納入聯合國千禧年發展目標

2008年10月03日
摘譯自2008年9月29日ENS美國,紐約報導;王牧農編譯;莫聞審校

在IUCN物種紅皮書中被列為嚴重瀕危的Sumatran猩猩;圖片來源:ARKive首度以來,聯合國千禧年發展目標 (Millennium Development Goals, MDGs)將以由世界自然保育聯盟(International Union for the Conservation of Nature, IUCN)所制定的物種紅皮書(Red List Index)來監測世界的動植物種量。以IUCN瀕危物種紅皮書(IUCN Red List of Threatened Species)為基礎而衍生出的物種紅皮書,顯示各物種群在全球性、地區性及國家性等的總體滅絕風險指標。

至今,千禧年發展目標的第七點,也就是確保環境永續發展能力項目(Ensure Environmental Sustainability),尚未將生物多樣性或是保育物種之對人類發展之重要貢獻及必需性的字語納入章程。

然而隨著最近期的千禧年發展目標進度報告之發行,搶在聯合國總部於9月25日在紐約的千禧年發展目標高層級暖身活動啟程前,已將「於2010年前指標性地降低生物多樣性喪失率」納入為發展目標指標之一。紅皮書將用於監測進程及凸顯現有保育行動所欠缺之處。

領導世界自然保育聯盟的物種項目組(IUCN Species Programme)的駛馬特(Jane Smart)女士表示,「世界自然保育聯盟的物種紅皮書是國際間分析物種滅絕風險議題最具權威性及可信賴性的系統。物種為生物多樣性的已知構成要素,因此,擴展我們的研究工作以建立一個可靠的物種喪失率趨勢(估算)極為重要。」

她並表示,「我們很雀躍聯合國以我們的物種紅皮書資訊作為檢視人類所依賴的動植物狀態之工具。」

千禧年發展目標總共八項目,皆由國際間政府及發展機構所達成共識,其中包含從減低極度貧窮到使艾滋病病毒停止蔓延等議題。這八項目提供在2015年達到的可測量目標驗收之基準。

朝生物多樣性之要素邁進的進程,將會以測量瀕危物種面臨絕種的比率來檢視,並以世界自然保育聯盟物種紅皮書來計算。

世界自然保育聯盟物種生存委員會(IUCN Species Survival Commission, SSC)召集人杜卜林(Holly Dublin)表示,「這個新目標將物種之重要性排在世界議題之首。生物多樣性與發展之間有著強韌的連結,這也是為何千禧年發展目標將保育之視為全球性的優先需求。」

她並表示,「物種被採集作為食物,藥以及纖維。也被馴化及使用於農業上,(它們)並扮演著調節地方性及全球性環境之角色。看到自然界被視為攸關人類福祉不可缺的貢獻者很令人欣慰。」

世界自然保育聯盟已經與世界鳥盟(BirdLife International),國際保育組織(Conservation International),服務自然(Serve Nature)及倫敦動物學會(The Zoological Society of London)結盟,以強化物種紅皮書的標準及發展瀕危物種紅皮書。

比起所有物種分類綱目,鳥類擁有歷史最悠久的綜何性評估。因此世界鳥盟已發展了史上第一個世界自然保育聯盟鳥類紅皮書(IUCN Red List Index for Birds),至今已紀錄過去20年的趨勢。

世界鳥盟的全球研究及指標協調人布取阿博士(Dr. Stuart Butchart)表示,「看到世界鳥盟對於測量趨勢的創舉,量身訂做應用在測量其他分類群,同時經由聯合國正式通過及採納,並作為(測量)千禧年發展目標之指標,真的是很棒。」他說,「世界鳥盟證實世界自然保育聯盟的物種紅皮書為追蹤物種多樣性趨勢的有利工具。」

舉例,白尾禿鷹(Gyps bengalensis)最近被世界自然保育聯盟瀕危物種紅皮書列為嚴重瀕危。其中,對白尾禿鷹有毒的藥物,即獸醫用藥物待克菲那(diclofenac),為造成橫跨印度次大陸此物種數量百分之99的消失之罪魁禍首。自白尾禿鷹數量的鄰近滅絕後,1980年代印度的野狗數量已加倍至2倍,隨著狂犬病緊接增加,已造成對經濟及人類衛生的衝擊。

根據世界自然保育聯盟,已針對兩棲類物種出版了初步的物種紅皮書,接下來會製作哺乳類,蘇鐵屬植物類及珊瑚類的物種紅皮書。

經過世界自然保育聯盟的物種紅名錄評估過程後,會陸續製作其他物種的紅皮書。

經由聯合國環境規劃署世界保育監測中心(UNEP Conservation Monitoring Centre)引薦给聯合國使用的世界自然保育聯盟的物種紅皮書,同時結合共同匯編的世界保護區資料庫(World Database on Protected Areas)。 此資料庫將用在報告千禧年發展目標下的物種多樣性目標所包含的保護區之涵蓋範圍的進程。

「世界已經發現環境的破壞及物種絕滅對於人類的生存及生計造成實質的損害。」聯合國環境規劃署世界保育監測中心(UNEP Conservation Monitoring Centre)的窩波博士(Dr. Matt Walpole)表示。

他並表示,「宣誓要降低物種多樣性喪失,並將其列入千禧年發展目標中,展現出國際間政府對於減低貧窮及完善的環境經營為一體兩面的清楚認知。」

參閱世界自然保育聯盟瀕危物種紅皮書:http://www.iucnredlist.org/

UN Millennium Development Goals Expand to Include Biodiversity
NEW YORK, New York, September 29, 2008 (ENS)

For the first time, the United Nations Millennium Development Goals is monitoring the world's plants and animals using the Red List fdeveloped by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, IUCN. Based on the comprehensive IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the index shows trends in the overall extinction risk for sets of species at global, regional and national levels.

Until now, the seventh Millennium Development Goal, to ensure environmental sustainability, has not included any mention of biodiversity or the need to save species as a critical contribution to human development.

But with the launch of the latest Annual Report on progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, in advance of the High-level Event on the Millennium Development Goals at UN Headquarters in New York on September 25, the goal now includes the aim to "significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010" as one of its targets. The index will be used to monitor progress and highlight areas where conservation efforts are needed.

"The IUCN Red List is the world's most authoritative and reliable system for assessing the risk of species extinction," says Jane Smart, who heads IUCN's Species Programme. "Species are the best known component of biodiversity and therefore it's vitally important to expand our work to establish a reliable trend in the rate of species loss."

"We're delighted to have our Red List information used as a primary tool by the United Nations to monitor the status of the animals and plants we depend upon," she said.

The eight Millennium Development Goals, agreed by the world's governments and development institutions, range from reducing extreme poverty to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS. They provide measurable targets which can be achieved by the year 2015.

Progress towards achievement of the biodiversity component will be monitored by measuring the proportion of species threatened with extinction - calculated by the IUCN Red List Index.

"This new target puts the importance of species at the top of the world's agenda," says Holly Dublin, who chairs the IUCN's Species Survival Commission. "The links between biodiversity and development are strong, which is why it's important that the Millennium Development Goals prioritize the need to conserve species across the world," said Dublin.

"Species are harvested for food, medicines and fibers.They're domesticated for agriculture and play an essential role in regulating local and global environments," she said. "It is great to see that nature is recognized as an essential contributor to human wellbeing."

IUCN has partnered with BirdLife International, Conservation International, NatureServe and the Zoological Society of London to strengthen the standards of the IUCN Red List and to develop the Red List Index.
Birds have the longest history of comprehensive assessment of any class of organisms. As a result, BirdLife International has developed the first IUCN Red List Index for birds, which now has 20 years of trends.

It is excellent to see that BirdLife's pioneering approach for measuring trends is being rolled out for other taxonomic groups, and has been adopted by the United Nations as an indicator against the Millenium Development Goals," said Dr. Stuart Butchart, BirdLife's global research and indicators coordinator. "BirdLife has found the IUCN Red List Index to be a powerful tool to track biodiversity trends."

For example, the white-rumped vulture, Gyps bengalensis, has recently been uplisted to Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The veterinary drug diclofenac, which is toxic to vultures, has been responsible for a decline of more than 99 percent in this species across the Indian subcontinent. Since the collapse of the vulture population the number of feral dogs in India has doubled since the 1980s, and rabies is now increasing, causing economic and human health impacts.

A preliminary Red List Index has been published for amphibians, and indexes for mammals, cycads and corals will be produced shortly, according to the IUCN.

Red List Indexes for additional groups of species will be produced when they have been assessed though the IUCN Red List process.

The IUCN Red List Index has been presented for use to the United Nations through the UN Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, which together with IUCN compiles the World Database on Protected Areas. This database will be used to report progress in protected area coverage under the biodiversity target of the Millennium Development Goals.

"The world is waking up to the fact that environmental destruction and species extinction does real damage to peoples' lives and livelihoods," said Dr. Matt Walpole, UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

"Pledging to reduce biodiversity loss as part of the Millennium Development Goals demonstrates clear recognition by the world's governments that poverty reduction and sound environmental management go hand in hand."

Visit the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species at:  http://www.iucnredlist.org/