瀕危物種是下一個? 美狩獵團體遊說川普放寬保育措施 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

瀕危物種是下一個? 美狩獵團體遊說川普放寬保育措施

2017年02月06日
摘譯自2017年2月1日ENS南非,開普敦報導;姜唯編譯;鄒敏惠審校

美國影響力最大的狩獵遊說團體「國際狩獵俱樂部」(Safari Club International,SCI)本月舉辦拍賣會,要以280頭南非動物的性命換取募款,遊說川普政權放寬受威脅物種保護政策,「非洲五霸」——非洲象、黑犀牛、獅子、非洲水牛和豹都可能受到影響。

拍賣會上總價值高達530萬美元的獵遊行程中,南非獵遊總價值約101萬美元。其他行程還包含狩獵全球約1000隻哺乳動物,包括瀕危的北極熊。SCI將直接利用競標獲利遊說美國政府支持狩獵活動。

影片截圖。Safari Club International's annual Las Vegas convention。來源:Humane Society United States

國際狩獵俱樂部歷年來舉辦拍賣會,販售非洲遊獵行程。圖片來源:影片截圖/Safari Club International's annual Las Vegas convention。

2月1至4日於美國拉斯維加的斯戰利品狩獵大會上,SCI提供60趟非洲獵遊行程讓2萬5000位獵人競標。美國獵人有機會在這些行程中,獵殺南非各種明星動物——包括長頸鹿、河馬、斑馬等——以及119種其他「加價升等」動物。

SCI希望能藉此對川普政府形成穩定影響力,尤其是掌管自然資源的內政部。該團體還金援不少美國政治行動委員會(簡稱PAC),其中的「捍衛狩獵基金」(Hunter Defense Fund)即是負責積極拉抬、支持戰利品狩獵活動的政治人物進入國會。

SCI今年1月對美國漁業與野生物管理局提出訴訟,為阿拉斯加自然保護區的空中狩獵以及其他不人道的狩獵活動辯護。

川普的兒子二世和艾瑞克都是戰利品獵人。他們與非洲狩獵戰利品合照的影像激怒了不少保育人士和愛護野生動物者。

SCI也影響美國政府對不少非洲國家的政策。SCI曾脅迫那米比亞撤銷對獵豹和花豹的狩獵禁令、說服贊比亞撤銷對獅子和獵豹的狩獵禁令。2015年9月,SCI和其他狩獵遊說組織與南非環境事務部和其他非洲國家代表閉門會議,討論戰利品狩獵的利益。媒體記者與反狩獵保育團體不得其門而入,引發對SCI與環境事務部之間關係的高度懷疑。

此外,另有兩個價值1萬6500美元與1萬5000美元的非洲獵遊行程開放線上競標。這兩個行程是獵犬狩獵(hounding),即獵人放出獵犬追逐獵物,直到獵物筋疲力盡或落入陷阱,容易遭獵人獵捕。

幾名非洲遊獵獵人正想辦法把一隻斑馬搬上車。圖片來源:Lynae Zebest(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

幾名非洲遊獵獵人正想辦法把一隻斑馬搬上車。圖片來源:Lynae Zebest(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

另一家戰利品狩獵公司(Watts Trophy Hunting)甚至給出加價升等,提供一隻大象和一隻非洲獅的獵殺名額。這兩個物種已因盜獵陷入生存危機,戰利品狩獵只會讓問題雪上加霜。

爭議最大的是,競標項目還包含了圈養狩獵行程。在圈養狩獵的過程中,獵物是困在沒有逃跑機會的圍籬內,供獵人獵殺。

國際人道協會(Humane Society International)目前提出呼籲,希望南非公民聯署聲明,中止戰利品狩獵這樣殘忍的活動。

U.S. Hunters Auction African Hunts for $$ to Lobby Trump
CAPE TOWN, South Africa, February 1, 2017 (ENS)

Safari Club International, America’s most powerful hunting lobby group, this week will auction the lives of 280 South African animals to raise funds to lobby the Trump administration against measures protecting threatened species, such as the Big Five: elephant, rhino, lion, buffalo and leopard.

At a trophy hunting convention the Safari Club International is hosting in Las Vegas February 1-4, the hunting lobby group expects an estimated 25,000 hunters to bid on at least 60 South African hunting trips.

American hunters are being offered the chance to kill all of South Africa’s iconic species.

Successful bidders will be able to shoot giraffe, hippo, zebra, baboon, wildebeest, sable antelope, warthog, greater kudu, impala, springbok, blesbok, caracal, African wildcat, with 119 other animals proffered as “upgrades” for an additional cost.

The South Africa hunts are valued at US$1.01 million, from an estimated total of US$5.3 million from other hunts on auction. These include the hunting of some 1,000 mammals internationally, including imperiled polar bears.

All profits from the trophy hunts will go directly toward funding SCI to actively lobby the U.S. government towards a pro-hunting stance. The group will hope to wield considerable influence on the Trump administration, especially the Department of the Interior, which manages natural resources.

Based in Tucson, Arizona, SCI filed a lawsuit against the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in January defending the practice of aerial hunting and other inhumane predator-killing practices in natural refuges in Alaska.

The group financially supports U.S. political action committees (PACs) like the Hunter Defense Fund, which actively works to elect pro-trophy hunting politicians to Congress.

President Trump’s sons, Donald Jr. and Eric, are both trophy hunters and images of their African safari kills have angered conservationists and wildlife lovers.

SCI also influences U.S. government policies toward several African nations.

In 2010, SCI forced Namibia to reverse its ban on leopard and cheetah hunting. A similar scenario occurred in Zambia when the powerful lobby group persuaded the Zambian government to reverse its ban on hunting lions and leopards.

In September 2015, SCI and other pro-hunting organizations met behind closed doors with the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and representatives of other African nations in Polokwane to discuss the “benefits” of trophy hunting.

Journalists and non-hunting conservation groups were barred from the meeting, which generated suspicion as to the exact nature of SCI’s involvement with the Department of Environmental Affairs.

This week, as part of the online auctions, there will be two South Africa hunts valued at US$16,500 and US$15,000 each  that offer to hunt wildlife with dogs. This controversial practice, known as “hounding,” sets dogs upon a wild animal, which is chased until exhausted, trapped, and easily shot.

These auctions can be seen here and here.

One auction from Watts Trophy Hunting offers an upgrade to kill an elephant and an African lion. Extremely high levels of poaching are already endangering both species and hunting them will only exacerbate the problem.

Most controversially, some of the auctions offer canned hunting – the cruel practice in which animals are hunted within a fenced area without any opportunity to escape.

Humane Society International is calling on South African citizens to oppose the callous killing of wildlife for entertainment by signing a pledge to end trophy hunting.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

※ 本文與 行政院農業委員會 林務局  合作刊登

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

鄒敏惠

Another world is possible.