美新規:四大類業者須申報溫室氣體 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

美新規:四大類業者須申報溫室氣體

2010年07月06日
摘譯自2010年6月30日ENS美國,華盛頓特區報導;洪美惠編譯;蔡麗伶審校

紐約一家大型廢水處理場,圖片來源:Victoria Belanger美國環保署6月28日通過最新規定,四大類工業必須報告溫室氣體排放量,以供外界檢驗。

此規定將強制地面下煤礦場、事業廢水處理場、事業廢棄物掩埋場以及製鎂工廠,納入全國強制性溫室氣體申報系統。

甲烷(Methane)是煤礦場、事業廢水處理場和事業廢棄物掩埋場排放出最主要的溫室氣體,其對大氣層暖化的能力是常見溫室氣體二氧化碳的20倍。。

產製鎂時最主要釋出的溫室氣體為六氟化硫(sulfur hexafluoride),這又比甲烷的暖化能力更強,並且會留存在大氣層數千年。製鎂業者必須像報備二氧化碳排量那樣,也要報告氟化物氣體的排放量,如冷媒HFC-134,和滅火氣體FK 5-1-12。

這4大類產業要從2011年1月1日開始收集排放數據,並在2012年3月31日向環保署提交年報。美國環保署表示,這些數據將有助於瞭解溫室氣體排放狀況,可幫助環保署及企業發展有效降低排放的政策。

環保署也決定,乙醇製造業、食品加工業和煤炭供應商目前暫不納入溫室氣體強制申報業別。

根據美國《空氣清淨法》(Clean Air Act),所有排放數據都該公開。然而,某些非關排放數據,可能被視為機密。因為它涉及到的具體信息,果公開,可能會損害企業的競爭力。在此法案下,有些數據具有商業機密,例如石化燃料業者或是天然氣供應商提報的資訊,會跟產量或是原料有關係。

另外,今年4月,環保署已要求業者提出溫室氣體排放報告。包括,海上和陸上的石油公司及天然氣業者,天然氣加工廠、天然氣加壓轉運站、地面下天然氣儲存庫、液化瓦斯儲存庫、以及液化瓦斯進出口站與配送。同時,環保署也要求家電製造商、氟化物氣體製造商、使用電力傳輸與設備流通等業者,必須申報氟化物溫室氣體。

Coal Mines, Wastewater Systems, Landfills to Report Greenhouse Gas Emissions
WASHINGTON, DC, June 30, 2010 (ENS)

Four major categories of industrial facilities will have to report their emissions of climate-altering greenhouse gases under a final rule issued for public comment Monday by the U.S. EPA.

The rule will bring underground coal mines, industrial wastewater treatment systems, industrial waste landfills and magnesium production facilities under the national mandatory greenhouse gas reporting program.

Methane is the primary greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines, industrial wastewater treatment systems and industrial landfills and this gas is more than 20 times as potent at warming the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, the most prevalent greenhouse gas.

The main fluorinated greenhouse gas emitted from magnesium production is sulfur hexafluoride, which has a much greater warming potential than methane, and can stay in the atmosphere for thousands of years. Magnesium producers must also report emissions of other fluorinated gases such as the refrigerant gas HFC-134a and the fire suppressant gas FK 5-1-12, as well as emissions of carbon dioxide.

These four source categories will begin collecting emissions data on January 1, 2011, with the first annual reports submitted to EPA on March 31, 2012.

The EPA says that data from these sectors will provide a better understanding of greenhouse gas emissions and will help EPA and businesses develop effective policies and programs to reduce them, the agency said in a statement announcing the final rule.

Ethanol producers, food processors and suppliers of coal will not be required to report their greenhouse gas emissions at this time, the EPA has decided.

Under the Clean Air Act, all emission data are public. Some non-emission data, however, may be considered confidential, because it relates to specific information which, if made public, could harm a business's competitiveness.

Examples of data considered confidential under this proposalinclude certain information reported by fossil fuel and industrial gas suppliers related to production quantities and raw materials.

In April, the EPA required reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from onshore petroleum and natural gas production, offshore petroleum and natural gas production, natural gas processing, natural gas transmission compressor stations, underground natural gas storage, liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage, LNG import and export terminals, and distribution.

Also in April, the EPA required reporting of emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases from electronics manufacturing, from the production of fluorinated gases, and from the use of electrical transmission and distribution equipment.

 

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導